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Table 5 Summary of the effects of yoga compared to control on physical outcomes

From: Physical and psychosocial benefits of yoga in cancer patients and survivors, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

PHYSICAL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Reference [56] [51] [31] [58] [32] [55] [44] [52] [53] [57] [54] [49] [50] [46] [47] [48]
Year 2011 2007 2003 2011 2009 2010 2004 2006 2009 2011 2007 2007 2009 2009a 2009b 2009c
Sample size 18 58 18 31 37 61 39 38 44 63 128 62 98 88 88 88
Treatment AT RT HT AT AT RT Mix AT Mix AT mix CT CT + RT RT RT RT
Quality high high low high high high high high high high high high high high high high
Physical function                 
Physical function N.S.       N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S.     N.S.  
Functional well being N.S.         N.S. N.S. N.S.      
Physical symptoms                 
Pain      N.S.   N.S.         N.S.
Nausea vomiting         N.S.        N.S.
Toxicity                
Diarrhoea                N.S.
Constipation         N.S.         N.S.
Appetite         N.S.         N.S.
Dyspnea                N.S
Hot flashes                
Night sweats      N.S.            
Activity/fitness                 
Physical Activity         N.S.   N.S.       N.S.
Weight         N.S.   N.S.       
Body mass index           N.S.       
Waist circumference                
Hip circumference           N.S.       
Flexibility     N.S.     N.S.         
Strength     N.S.     N.S.         
Fitness/distance walked         N.S.         
Perceived exertion         N.S.         
Biological Variables                 
DNA Damage                
Cortisol               
Blood pressure         N.S.         
  1. ↑ = increase after yoga compared to control; ↓ decrease after yoga compared to control; N.S. no significant differences between yoga and control
  2. AT after treatment, CT chemotherapy, HT, hormonal therapy, RT radiotherapy, mix mixed group of patients during and after treatment.