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Table 3 Description of physical and psychosocial outcomes and between group differences (yoga vs control), in alphabetical order of first author

From: Physical and psychosocial benefits of yoga in cancer patients and survivors, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Author, year Physical outcomes Between group difference Psychosocial outcomes Between group difference
Banasik, 2011 [56] FACT   FACT  
- Physical well-being N.S. - emotional well-being N.S.
- Functional well-being N.S. - social well-being N.S.
Cortisol, morning N.S. Breast cancer concerns N.S.
Cortison, noon P = 0.004 Fatigue P = 0.003
Cortisol, 5 p.m. P = 0.004   
Cortisol, 10 p.m. N.S.   
Banerjee, 2007 [51] DNA damage 14,5% less DNA damage in Yoga group; p < 0.001 Anxiety (HADS-A) 48% reduction in yoga group vs 28% increase in controls; p < 0.001
   Depression (HADS-D) 57.5% decrease in yoga vs 24% decrease in controls; p < 0.001
   Perceived stress (PSS) 26.9% reduction in yoga vs 7% increase in controls; p < 0.001
Blank, 2003 [31] 25% had relieved joint aches and shoulder stiffness NA 100% perceived direct stress reduction NA
   88% felt more relaxed in daily life, more aware of body posture, improved body image NA
   63% had improved mood and less anxiety NA
Bower, 2012 [58] Lower extremity strength and endurance (timed chair stands) 1.31 (−5.00; 2.38, N.S. Fatigue (FSI) −1.24 (−0.04; -2.45), p < 0.05
Flexibility (functional reach test) −2.00 (5.76; -9.98), N.S. Vigor 4.80 (1.86; 7.74), p < 0.05
   Depression (BDI) −5.80 (−1.74; -9.86), p < 0.05
   Sleep quality (PSQI) 0.20 (2.78; -2.38), N.S.
   Perceived stress (PSS) −1.77 (1.71; -5.26), N.S.
Carson, 2009 [32] Hot flash frequency P = 0.0017 Negative mood P = 0.099
Hot flash severity P = 0.0019 Relaxation P = 0.543
Hot flash total P < 0.0001 Vigor P = 0.005
Joint pain P < 0.0001 Acceptance P = 0.058
Night sweats N.S. Symptom-related bother P < 0.0001
   Fatigue P = 0.001
   Sleep disturbance P = 0.007
Chandwani, 2010 [55] SF-36   SF-36  
- Physical component summary ES = 0.44; P = 0.04 - Mental component summary N.S.
- Physical function ES = 0.46; p = 0.04 - Mental health N.S.
- body pain N.S. - Role physical N.S.
   - Role emotional N.S.
   - Social function N.S.
   - vitality N.S.
   - General HRQoL ES = 0,47; p = 0.005
   Depression (CES-D) N.S.
   Anxiety (STAI) N.S.
   Distress (IES)  
   - Intrusion N.S.
   - Avoidance N.S.
   Fatigue (BFI) N.S.
   Sleep (PSQI) N.S.
   Benefit finding (BFS) N.S.
Cohen, 2004 [44]    Distress (IES) N.S.
   Anxiety (STAI) N.S.
   Depression (CES-D) N.S.
   Sleep disturbances (PSQI)  
   - Total score P = 0.004
   - Sleep quality P = 0.02
   - Sleep latency P = 0.01
   - Sleep duration P = 0.03
   - Sleep efficiency N.S.
   - Sleep medications P = 0.02
   - Daytime dysfunction N.S.
   Fatigue (BFI) N.S.
Culos-Reed, 2006 [52] Physical activity (LSI) N.S. Mood (POMS)  
Weight N.S. - Total mood P < 0.10
Systolic and diastolic blood pressure N.S. - Tension-anxiety P < 0.10
Hand grip strength N.S. - Depression-dejection P < 0.10
Distance walked N.S. - Confusion-bewilderment P < 0.10
Perceived exertion N.S. - Vigor N.S.
Flexibility (sit and reach) N.S. - Anger-hostility N.S.
EORTC-QLQ-C30   Symptoms of stress (SOSI)  
- Physical function N.S. - Peripheral manifestations N.S.
- pain N.S. - Cardiopulmonary symptoms N.S.
- nausea and vomiting N.S. - Symptoms of arousal N.S.
- dyspnea P < 0.05 - Upper respiratory symptoms N.S.
- appetite N.S. - Central neurological symptoms N.S.
- constipation N.S. - Gastrointestinal symptoms P < 0.10
- diarrhea P < 0.05 - Muscle tension N.S.
   - Habitual patterns N.S.
   - Depression N.S.
   - Anxiety/fear N.S.
   - Emotional irritability P < 0.10
   - Cognitive disorganization P < 0.10
   HRQoL (EORTC QLQ-C30)  
   - global quality of life P < 0.01
   - emotional function P < 0.05
   - cognitive function N.S.
   - social function N.S.
   - role function N.S.
   - fatigue (POMS) N.S.
   - sleep disturbance N.S.
Danhauer, 2009 [53] Physical function (SF-12) N.S. Mental health (SF-12) P = 0.004
FACT   Depression (CES-D) P = 0.026
- Physical well-being N.S. Fatigue (FACT-fatigue) N.S.
- Functional well-being N.S. Negative affect (PANAS-NA) P = 0.014
   Positive affect (PANAS-PA) P = 0.01
   FACT-General P = 0.052
   - Social well-being N.S.
   - Emotional well-being P = 0.042
   Spiritual well being (FACIT Sp)  
   - peace/meaning P = 0.0009
   - role of faith N.S.
   Sleep disturbances (PSQI)  
   - Total score N.S.
   - Sleep quality N.S.
   - Sleep latency P = 0.078
   - Sleep duration N.S.
   - Sleep efficiency N.S.
   - Sleep medications P = 0.10
   - Daytime dysfunction N.S.
Littman, 2011 [57] FACT   Overall QoL (FACT-G) N.S.
- Physical well-being N.S. Breast-cancer subscale N.S.
- Functional well-being N.S. - Social well-being N.S.
Physical Activity (MAQ) N.S. - Emotional well-being N.S.
BMI N.S. - social/family well-being N.S.
Waist circumference −3.1 (−5.7; -0.4) Fatigue (FACIT-F) N.S.
Hip circumference N.S.   
weight N.S.   
Moadel, 2007 [54] FACT   Overall QoL (FACT-G) P < 0.01†
- Physical well-being N.S. - Social well-being ES = −0.22 (−3.78 to −0.36); P = 0.018
- Functional well-being N.S. - Emotional well-being P = 0.018*; P < 0.05†
   Fatigue (FACT-fatigue) N.S.
   Spiritual well-being (FACIT Sp) P = 0.009†
   Distressed Mood (DMI) P < 0.05†
   - Anxious/sad P = 0.046†
   - Irritability P = 0.0275†
   - Confusion N.S.
Raghavendra, 2007 [49] Nausea frequency P = 0.01 Anxiety (STAI) P < 0.001
Nausea severity P < 0.01 Depression (DBI) P < 0.001
Vomiting frequency P = 0.06 Number of distressful symptoms P = 0.002
Vomiting severity P = 0.05 Severity of symptoms P < 0.001
Total toxicity score P < 0.001 Symptom distress P < 0.001
   Overall quality of life (FLIC) P < 0.001
Rao, 2009 [50]    State anxiety (STAI) ES = 0.33; P < 0.05 (ITT)
   Trait anxiety (STAI) ES = 0.24; NS (ITT)
   Symptom distress P = 0.001
Vadiraja, 2009a [46] Cortisol level at 6 am ES = 0.24;P < 0.05 Anxiety (HADS-A) ES = 0.31; P < 0.001
Cortisol level at 9 am N.S. Depression (HADS-D) ES = 0.31; P < 0.01
Cortisol level at 9 pm N.S. perceived stress (PSS) ES = 0.36; P < 0.001
Mean pooled diurnal cortisol ES = 0.27; P < 0.05   
Vadiraja, 2009b [47] EORTC QLQ-C30   Positive Affect (PANAS) ES = 0.59; P = 0.007
- Physical function ES = 0.16; N.S. Negative Affect (PANAS) ES = 0.84; P = 0.001
   HRQoL (EORTC QLQ-C30)  
   - Role function ES = 0.19; N.S.
   - Emotional function ES = 0.71; P = 0.001
   - Cognitive function ES = 0.48; P = 0.03
   - Social function ES = 0.21; N.S.
Vadiraja 2009c [48] Physical distress (RSCL) ES = 0.33; p = 0.02 Psychological distress (RCSL) ES = 0.39; p < 0.001
EORTC-QLQ-C30   EORTC QLQ-C30  
- pain ES = 0.14; N.S. - fatigue ES = 0.33; N.S.
- nausea and vomiting ES = 0.05; N.S. - insomnia ES = 0.47; N.S.
- dyspnea ES = 0.01; N.S.   
- appetite loss ES = 0.38; N.S.   
- diarrhea ES = 0.01; N.S.   
- constipation ES = 0.14; N.S.   
Activity level ES = 0.14; N.S.   
  1. BDI = Beck’s Depression Inventory; BFI = Brief Fatigue Inventory; CES-D = Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression; CT = chemotherapy; DMI = Distressed Mood Index; EORTC-QoL C30 = European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life; ES = effect size; FACT-G = Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General; FACIT = Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy; FLIC = Functional Living Index for Cancer; FSI = Fatigue Symptom Inventory; HADS = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; IES = Impact of Events Scale; ITT = Intention to treat; LSI = Leisure Score Index; MAQ = Modifiable Activity Questionnaire; NA = not assessed; N.S. = not significant; PANAS = Positive and Negative Effect Schedule; POMS = Profile of Mood states; PSQI = Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PSS = perceived stress scale; RSCL = Rotterdam Symptom Check List; SOSI = Symptoms of Stress Inventory; STAI = Spielberger’s State Trait Anxiety Inventory.