Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Description of yoga programs, in alphabetical order of first author and attendance to yoga class

From: Physical and psychosocial benefits of yoga in cancer patients and survivors, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Author, year Yoga program (Y); Duration and frequency (D); Home practice (H) vs comparison (C) Attendance
Banasik 2011 [56] Y Iyengar yoga given by expert Iyenger instructors, with focus on training and accepting the physical form of the body without specific meditation component. Average 14 classes out of 16 (87.5%), range 12 – 15.
D 8 weeks, twice a week, 90 min per session
H -
C wait-list
Banerjee, 2007 [51] Y Meditative practice, slow stretching and loosening exercises, motivation and counseling, yoga asanas, group awareness practices, pranayama, deep relaxation (yoga nidra) given by expert yoga trainers. ?
D 6-weeks; 90 min per session
H Patients were provided with audio and video tools to practice at home and were followed up via telephone during weekends to ensure continuity of the practice.
C Supportive counseling and advised to take light exercise.
Blank, 2003 [31] Y Iyengar Yoga, including seated meditation, active asana, restorative poses, savasana. ?
D 8 weeks, 2 times per week
H 1 home practice per week
C wait-list control
Bower, 2012 [58] Y Iyengar yoga classes were taught by a certified Junior Intermediate Iyengar yoga instructor and an assistant under the guidance of a senior teacher. The mean number of yoga classes attended was 18.9 of 24 classes (78%), and the median was 22 of 24 classes (92%).
D 12 weeks, twice a week, 90 min.
H -
C Health education classes were conducted for 120 min once a week for 12 weeks. Classes were led by a PhD-level psychologist with clinical experience in the treatment of breast cancer survivors.
Carson, 2009 [32] Y Yoga of Awareness given by certified yoga teacher: 40 min yoga poses, 10 min breathing techniques, 25 min meditation, 20 min of study pertinent topics and 25 min group discussion Average 6 classes out of 8 (75%). 3 women less than 4 classes (3/17 = 17.6%)
D 8 weeks, once a week, 120 min
H Patients were encouraged to practice daily at home with aid of CD recordings and illustrated hand books.
C Wait-list control
Chandwani, 2010 [55] Y The multidimensional yoga module was given a trained yoga instructor: 10 warm-up movements synchronized with breathing, 25 min maintenance in selected postures, 10 min deep relaxation, 5 min pranayama, 10 min mediation. 15 (50%) all 12 classes; 8 (28%) attended 11 classes; 1 (3%) attended 10 classes; 1 only 2 classes. One attended 3 classes, one 4, one 5, one 7 and one 8 classes. Average number of classes was 10.2 (85%); SD: 2.96; range 2 – 12. Home practice: 8 (28%) reported practicing
D 6 weeks, 2 times per week; 60 min per session
H Patients were encouraged to practice type full yoga once per day outside the classes, supported by a 60-min audio CD of the yoga program and a manual with photographs and instructions.
C Wait-list control
Cohen, 2004 [44] Y Tibetan yoga sessions given by experienced instructor, divided into 4 aspects: controlled breathing and visualization, mindfulness, and postures. 32% all sessions; 26% 5 or 6 sessions; 32% 2 or 3 sessions; 10% 1 session
D 7 weekly sessions
H Patients were encouraged to practice the techniques at least once per day, supported by audiotape that walked them though all of the techniques.
C Wait-list control
Culos-Reed, 2006 [52] Y Classes were led by a certified yoga instructed and included 10 min gentle breathing; 50 min Yoga asanas; 15 min savasana.  
D 7 weeks, 75 min.
H -
C Wait-list control
Danhauer, 2009 [53] Y Restorative yoga classes were taught by a yoga instructor with cancer-specific yoga training and combined yoga asanas, pranayama, savasana. Mean 5.8 (3.4) classes out of 10 (58%) 2 (10%) women 100%; 3 (14%) 0% of classes
D 10 weekly 75-min classes
H -
C Wait-list control
Littman, 2011 [57] Y Viniyoga, a Hatha therapeutic type o f yoga given by certified experienced yoga instructors: 5–10 min centering exercises to promote relaxation and internal focus, 50–60 min of seated and standing poses, 10–15 min guided relaxation, breathing exercises and meditation. Mean 19.6 (range 1–61; median 20.5) classes. Home practice: 55.8 times (range 2 – 102; median 62).
D 6 months, 5 times per week including at least one 75-min class
H patients were given a DVD, VD and booklets of four home practices lasting 20–30 min each.
C Wait-list control
Moadel, 2007 [54] Y Classes were given by a certified yoga instructor and included 3 yoga components: physical stretches and poses, breathing exercises, and meditation. High adherence (>6 classes): n = 33 (; Low adherence (1–6 classes), n = 24; No adherence (0 classes), n = 27. Average attendance 7 out of 12 classes (58%).
D 12 weekly 1.5 hrs classes (more allowed)
H Patients were asked to practice yoga at home daily and given an audiotape/compact disk for guidance.
C Wait-list control
Raghavendra, 2007 [49] Y Integrated yoga program administered by an instructor: asanas, breathing exercise, pranayama, meditation and yogic relaxation techniques with imagery. ?
D 30 min before the start of the chemotherapy infusion (once in 10 days, number of cycles 4–8).
H Patients were provided with audiotapes of these exercises for home practice and asked to practice daily for 1 h for 6 days/week during intervals between chemotherapy cycles.
C Supportive therapy and coping preparation
Rao, 2009 [50] Y Integrated yoga program administered by an instructor: asanas, breathing, pranayama, mediation and yogic relaxation techniques with imagery. ?
D Four sessions during pre- and post operative period, 3 in-person sessions per week for 6 weeks during radiotherapy. During chemotherapy, subjects underwent person sessions during their hospital visits for chemotherapy administration (once in 21 days) and an additional yoga session once in 10 days.
H Patients were given booklets, audiotapes with instructions on practices for home practice.
C Supportive therapy sessions
Vadiraja, 2009 [4648] Y Integrated yoga program administered by an instructor: asanas, breathing, pranayama, mediation and yogic relaxation techniques with imagery. 29.7% attended 10-20% supervised sessions, 56.7% attended 20–25, 13.7% attended >25 supervised sessions over a 6-week period. Attend minimal 3x/wk for 6 weeks → 18 classes.
D Minimum of 3 in-person sessions per week for 6 weeks during radio treatment; 1 hour per session. In total between 18–24 yoga sessions.
H Patients were given booklets, audiotapes with instructions on practices for home practice.
C Supportive therapy with education. 15-min counseling sessions once every 10 days during 6 weeks (3 or 4 sessions in total).
  1. Asana = physical posture; Pranayama = breathing practice, voluntary regulated nostril breathing; Yoga nidra = deep relaxation; Savasana = the corpse pose, relaxation.