PDGF-A expression was increased in IFN- re-initiated treatment course. (A) Endothelial cell (red:CD31 staining/DyLight 488) and apoptosis (green: TUNEL/FITC) were examined. The first IFN-α treatment resulted in marked endothelial cell apoptosis (yellow), but the re-initiated IFN-α treatment did not (scale bar = 20 μm). (B) Expression of VEGF at the mRNA level in HCC. RT-PCR for GAPDH was used to compare input mRNA integrity. (C) Effect of IFN-α on the expression of VEGF165 and PDGF-A, determined with RT-PCR and normalized to GAPDH expression. An asterisk indicates statistical significance when compared with corresponding control groups (P < 0.05).