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Table 5 Effect sizes of yoga versus control during active cancer treatment and after completion of active cancer treatment

From: Yoga for breast cancer patients and survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Outcomea No. of studies No. of patients (yoga) No. of patients (control) Standardized mean difference [95% confidence interval] P (overall effect) Heterogeneity
I2; Chi2; P
During active cancer treatment
Short-term
 Mental well-being 3 90 91 1.01 [−0.19, 2.22] 0.10 92%; 24.89; <0.01
 Physical well-being 3 81 82 1.22 [−0.90, 3.34] 0.26 97%; 28.66; <0.01
 Social well-being 2 74 75 0.38 [−0.02, 0.78] 0.06 31%; 1.46; 0.23
 Anxiety 4 132 121 −1.86 [−3.02, -0.69] <0.01 93%; 45.00;<0.01
 Depression 4 132 121 −2.16 [−3.77, -0.55] <0.01 96%; 83.03; <0.01
 Perceived stress 3 93 72 −2.13 [−3.48, -0.78] <0.01 91%; 21.38; <0.01
 Psychological distress 4 113 114 −1.10 [−2.09, -0.10] 0.03 92%; 35.97; <0.01
After active cancer treatment
Short-term
 Mental well-being 2 37 34 −0.16 [−0.63, 0.31] 0.50 0%; 0.04; 0.85
 Physical well-being 2 37 34 0.07 [−0.68, 0.81] 0.86 44%; 1.77; 0.18
 Functional well-being 2 37 34 0.23 [−0.23, 0.70] 0.33 0%; 0.05; 0.82
 Social well-being 2 37 34 0.05 [−0.50, 0.61] 0.85 16%; 1.20; 0.27
  1. aOutcomes are only shown when sufficient data for meta-analysis were available.
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