Characteristic

Level

All lung cancer

Squamous

Adeno


 
Estimate^{b}(SE^{c})

p^{d}

Estimate^{b}(SE^{c})

p^{d}

Estimate^{b}(SE^{c})

p^{d}


Constant
 
+1.280 (0.052)
 
+1.281 (0.174)
 
+0.368 (0.178)
 
Sex

Male

Base

NS

Base

NS

Base

<0.05


Female

−0.040 (0.016)
 
−0.046 (0.072)
 
−0.275 (0.058)
 

Combined

+0.018 (0.029)
 
−0.130 (0.141)
 
+0.102 (0.138)
 
Location

North America

Base

<0.001

Base

<0.001

Base

<0.001


United Kingdom

−0.108 (0.057)
 
−0.861 (0.266)
 
−0.535 (0.324)
 

Scandinavia

−0.095 (0.051)
 
−0.484 (0.241)
 
−0.630 (0.190)
 

Other Europe

−0.319 (0.039)
 
−0.609 (0.114)
 
−0.731 (0.107)
 

China

−1.320 (0.024)
 
−1.028 (0.120)
 
−1.356 (0.094)
 

Japan

−0.858 (0.053)
 
−0.562 (0.226)
 
−1.158 (0.119)
 

Other Asia

−0.646 (0.060)
 
−0.390 (0.158)
 
−0.557 (0.127)
 

Other or multiregion

−0.173 (0.076)
 
−0.031 (0.301)
 
−0.024 (0.213)
 
Start year of study

Before 1960

Base

<0.001

Base

<0.001

Base

<0.05


196069

+0.384 (0.047)
 
+0.819 (0.154)
 
+0.750 (0.166)
 

197079

+0.430 (0.045)
 
+0.802 (0.130)
 
+0.672 (0.150)
 

198089

+0.783 (0.042)
 
+0.990 (0.134)
 
+0.857 (0.155)
 

1990 or later

+0.872 (0.063)
 
+1.788 (0.263)
 
+0.892 (0.200)
 
Study type

Case–control

Base

<0.01

Base

NS

Base

NS


Prospective^{e}

+0.238 (0.036)
 
+0.395 (0.233)
 
+0.352 (0.140)
 
Number of cases^{f}

100249

Base

<0.001

Base

<0.05

Base

<0.05


250499

+0.101 (0.044)
 
+0.251 (0.152)
 
+0.265 (0.107)
 

500999

+0.293 (0.043)
 
+0.729 (0.162)
 
+0.550 (0.121)
 

1000+

+0.290 (0.038)
 
+0.655 (0.145)
 
+0.594 (0.100)
 
Number of adjustment factors

0

Base

<0.05

Base

<0.05

Base

<0.1


1

−0.171 (0.034)
 
+0.477 (0.147)
 
+0.391 (0.110)
 

2+

+0.017 (0.025)
 
−0.226 (0.097)
 
+0.272 (0.078)
 

^{a} Based on the same data as for Table 5. See that table for further definition of RRs selected for analysis, and numbers of estimates of each characteristic level.

^{b} Estimates are of log RR. The predicted RR of a given estimate can be calculated by adding the constant to the values for the level of each characteristic applicable to the estimate (taking the value for a base level as zero) and taking the exponential of the result.

^{c} SE = standard error.

^{d} The p value is estimated from the drop in deviance from removing the characteristic from the fixed model using an Ftest. It is expressed as p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.05, p < 0.1 or NS (p ≥ 0.1).

^{e} Or nested case–control or casecohort in the case of 5 estimates for all lung cancer, 4 for squamous and 4 for adeno.

^{f} In the study as a whole.
 Note For the forward stepwise analyses, deviances, degrees of freedom and p values for inclusion in order of inclusion are as follows:

All lung cancer: Constant 7470.075 on 327 d.f. (p < 0.001), location 2247.358 on 320 d.f. (p < 0.001), start year of study 1599.339 on 316 d.f. (p < 0.001), number of cases 1523.722 on 313 d.f. (p < 0.01), study type 1497.854 on 312 d.f. (p < 0.05) and number of adjustment variables 1463.482 on 310 d.f. (p < 0.05). Fixed model deviance 1454.810 on 308 d.f.

Squamous: Constant 522.221 on 101 d.f. (p < 0.001), start year of study 419.586 on 97 d.f. (p < 0.001) and location 308.715 on 90 d.f. (p < 0.001). Fixed model deviance 260.432 on 82 d.f.

Adeno: Constant 930.356 on 106 d.f. (p < 0.001), location 431.955 on 99 d.f. (p < 0.001), number of cases 369.648 on 96 d.f. (p <0.01), start year of study 328.896 on 92 d.f. (p < 0.05) and sex 307.336 on 90 d.f. (p < 0.05). Fixed model deviance 284.147 on 87 d.f.