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Table 4 Distribution of the main characteristics of the relative risks a

From: Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence in the 1900s relating smoking to lung cancer

Smoking indexb Dose response RRsb,c Total Principald By lung cancer typea By sex
     All Squamous Adeno Combined Male Female
All   16616 15350 11316 2268 1698 1031 11202 4383
Any product or cigarettes vs. never/non   3614 3366 2359 488 432 342 2065 1207
Cig only smoking vs. never/non   678 621 535 72 56 18 513 147
Pipe/Cigar/Mixed vs. never/non   769 678 644 61 53 22 717 30
Handrolled vs. manufactured   120 104 74 22 14 8 93 19
Filter vs. Plain   303 264 167 74 37 9 182 112
Menthol vs. non-menthol   25 16 20 2 1 5 10 10
Amount smoked All RRs 3627 3509 2708 412 310 198 2459 970
  Sets vs. never/non 1145 1104 858 123 100 64 741 340
Age of starting All RRs 1442 1344 1052 167 128 67 970 405
  Sets vs. never/non 256 242 188 29 24 13 159 84
  Sets vs. low 301 285 197 44 35 14 196 91
  Non-categorical RRs 14 14 6 2 2 2 7 5
Duration of smoking All RRs 2337 2129 1544 342 240 202 1470 665
  Sets vs. never/non 374 337 248 54 40 37 221 116
  Sets vs. low 434 384 261 75 56 38 260 136
  Non-categorical RRs 72 70 32 19 20 1 39 32
Years quit (vs. never) All RRs 1665 1504 991 276 198 64 1241 360
  Sets vs. never/non 207 194 124 35 26 11 146 50
  Sets vs. low 255 234 157 39 27 8 190 57
  Non-categorical RRs 3 3 3 0 0 2 1 0
Years quit (vs. current) All RRs 1421 1248 867 221 145 55 1076 290
  Sets vs. current 251 231 155 38 25 11 183 57
  Sets vs. low 244 223 158 33 23 10 177 57
  Non-categorical RRs 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tar All RRs 222 198 156 33 33 18 127 77
  Sets vs. never/non 22 18 16 3 3 4 13 5
  Sets vs. low 41 36 33 4 4 3 24 14
  Non-categorical RRs 55 55 19 18 18 0 27 28
Butt length All RRs 15 15 15 0 0 0 6 9
  Sets vs. never/non 3 3 3 0 0 0 1 2
  Sets vs. low 2 2 2 0 0 0 1 1
  Non-categorical RRs 2 2 2 0 0 0 1 1
Fraction smoked All RRs 192 192 42 70 40 5 140 47
  Sets vs. never/non 40 40 10 14 8 1 29 10
  Sets vs. low 50 50 12 18 10 1 34 15
  Non-categorical RRs 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Lung cancer type (near equivalent definitions)a All 11316 10553 11316 0 0 760 7700 2856
  Squamous 2268 2038 0 2268 0 113 1538 617
  Adeno 1698 1532 0 0 1698 68 1098 532
Lung cancer type (exact definitions) All lung cancer 10980 10247 10980 0 0 671 7571 2738
  Squamous cell carcinoma 1064 1004 0 1064 0 66 710 288
  Adenocarcinoma 1172 1112 0 0 1172 64 726 382
  Large cell carcinoma 393 392 0 0 0 13 266 114
  Small cell carcinoma 718 662 0 0 0 29 497 192
  Other 223 173 0 0 0 48 103 72
Adjustment None 10113 9266 6740 1362 1086 651 6613 2849
  Sex and/or age only 3099 3053 2423 264 234 132 2307 660
  Other (but not sex or age) 701 686 442 142 63 51 418 232
  Sex and/or age plus other 2703 2345 1711 365 315 197 1864 642
Derivation Original 1853 1705 1088 261 254 163 1157 533
  Standard calculations 9803 8983 6701 1371 996 663 6376 2764
  Other methods 4960 4662 3527 638 448 205 3669 1086
    Continent     Study type   
   Total North America Europe Asia Other Case–control Other  
All   16616 6676 6122 2770 1048 11945 4671  
Any product or cigarettes vs. never/non   3614 1493 1163 771 187 2716 898  
Cigarette only smoking vs. never/non   678 284 340 27 27 345 333  
Pipe/Cigar/Mixed vs. never/non   769 380 327 39 23 428 341  
Handrolled vs. manufactured   120 0 68 30 22 90 30  
Filter vs. Plain   303 74 178 27 24 268 35  
Menthol vs. non-menthol   25 25 0 0 0 13 12  
Amount smoked All RRs 3627 1601 1288 612 126 2240 1387  
  Sets vs. never/non 1145 507 404 189 45 712 433  
Age of starting All RRs 1442 496 512 301 133 1017 425  
  Sets vs. never/non 256 82 93 58 23 186 70  
  Sets vs. low 301 93 105 71 32 224 77  
  Non-categorical RRs 14 10 1 3 0 14 0  
Duration of smoking All RRs 2337 939 706 462 230 1816 521  
  Sets vs. never/non 374 148 111 80 35 287 87  
  Sets vs. low 434 154 141 94 45 353 81  
  Non-categorical RRs 72 60 9 3 0 70 2  
Years quit (vs. never) All RRs 1665 668 657 196 144 1339 326  
  Sets vs. never/non 207 89 75 23 20 170 37  
  Sets vs. low 255 86 111 33 25 208 47  
  Non-categorical RRs 3 3 0 0 0 3 0  
Years quit (vs. current) All RRs 1421 457 674 177 113 1155 266  
  Sets vs. current 251 76 112 36 27 213 38  
  Sets vs. low 244 84 102 31 27 198 46  
  Non-categorical RRs 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
Tar All RRs 222 158 64 0 0 182 40  
  Sets vs. never/non 22 16 6 0 0 19 3  
  Sets vs. low 41 25 16 0 0 26 15  
  Non-categorical RRs 55 55 0 0 0 54 1  
Butt length All RRs 15 0 13 0 2 15 0  
  Sets vs. never/non 3 0 3 0 0 3 0  
  Sets vs. low 2 0 2 0 0 2 0  
  Non-categorical RRs 2 0 0 0 2 2 0  
Fraction smoked All RRs 192 32 56 99 5 190 2  
  Sets vs. never/non 40 10 8 21 1 40 0  
  Sets vs. low 50 12 16 21 1 48 2  
  Non-categorical RRs 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
Lung cancer type (near equivalent)a All 11316 4879 3955 1765 717 6942 4374  
  Squamous 2268 773 931 445 119 2131 137  
  Adeno 1698 615 618 346 119 1601 97  
Lung cancer type (exact definitions) All lung cancer 10980 4654 3923 1686 717 6608 4372  
  Squamous carcinoma 1064 205 433 307 119 1008 56  
  Adenocarcinoma 1172 308 435 310 119 1097 75  
  Large cell carcinoma 393 208 94 88 3 379 14  
  Small cell carcinoma 718 148 427 108 35 669 49  
  Other 223 53 97 18 55 223 0  
Adjustment None 10113 4105 3489 1847 672 8126 1987  
  Sex and/or age only 3099 1515 1153 399 32 1216 1883  
  Other (but not sex or age) 701 177 409 79 36 579 122  
  Sex and/or age plus other 2703 879 1071 445 308 2024 679  
Derivation Original 1853 649 649 379 176 1436 417  
  Standard calculations 9803 3865 3519 1811 608 7703 2100  
  Other methods 4960 2162 1954 580 264 2806 2154  
  1. a RRs relating to all lung cancer (all), squamous cell carcinoma (squamous) or adenocarcinoma (adeno) or to a near equivalent definition.
  2. b “never/non” indicates never smoker or non smoker.
  3. c Sets are dose response results for an identical definition of smoking product, strata and confounding variables. Sets vs. low are sets where the RR has been calculated compared to the level with the lowest expected risk, i.e. the smallest amount smoked, or the latest age of starting. Non-categorical RRs are typically where RRs and CIs are not available, but some other information was provided.
  4. d RRs from principal studies.