Skip to main content

Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 20 Meta-analyses for additional lung cancer types (all lung cancer) a

From: Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence in the 1900s relating smoking to lung cancer

Lung cancer type Statisticb Ever smoking Current smoking Ever/current smoking
All lung cancerc n 328 195 342
  F 4.22 (4.16-4.28) 9.29 (9.07-9.52) 4.25 (4.20-4.31)
  R 5.50 (5.07-5.96) 8.43 (7.63-9.31) 5.48 (5.07-5.93)
  H, PH 22.84, p < 0.001 13.76, p < 0.001 22.46, p < 0.001
Squamous cell carcinoma n 74 33 82
  F 10.43 (9.72-11.20) 12.74 (11.71-13.87) 9.80 (9.18-10.47)
  R 11.56 (9.68-13.81) 16.43 (12.66-21.32) 11.62 (9.80-13.78)
  H, PH 4.18, p < 0.001 5.70, p < 0.001 4.44, p < 0.001
Adenocarcinoma n 87 40 96
  F 3.58 (3.39-3.78) 4.40 (4.12-4.70) 3.50 (3.33-3.67)
  R 2.99 (2.49-3.58) 4.05 (3.15-5.22) 3.10 (2.52-3.65)
  H, PH 9.18, p < 0.001 12.28, p < 0.001 8.96, p < 0.001
Large cell carcinoma n 26 15 29
  F 6.11 (4.78-7.81) 8.41 (6.36-11.12) 5.57 (4.48-6.92)
  R 5.59 (4.05-7.72) 8.56 (5.29-13.86) 5.33 (4.02-7.07)
  H, PH 1.47, p < 0.1 2.13, p < 0.01 1.40, p < 0.1
Small cell carcinoma n 54 27 61
  F 9.88 (8.94-10.02) 15.31 (13.64-17.19) 9.99 (9.09-10.97)
  R 10.98 (8.25-14.61) 18.17 (12.92-25.56) 11.14 (8.59-14.46)
  H, PH 6.08, p < 0.001 5.67, p < 0.001 5.70, p < 0.001
  1. a Within each study, results for the relevant lung cancer type and smoking status are selected in the following preference order, within each sex, for:
  2. smoking product – any, cigarettes (ignoring other products), cigarettes only;
  3. cigarette type – any, manufactured (with or without handrolled), manufactured only;
  4. unexposed group – never any product, never cigarettes, other;
  5. follow-up period – longest available;
  6. race – all or nearest available, otherwise by race;
  7. overlapping studies – principal, subsidiary;
  8. age – whole study, widest available age group;
  9. Results are then selected for:
  10. sex – single sex results, combined sex results;
  11. adjustment for potential confounders – most available.
  12. b n = number of estimates combined, F = fixed-effect meta-analysis RR (95% CI), R = random-effects meta-analysis RR (95% CI), H = heterogeneity chisquared per degree of freedom, PH = probability value for heterogeneity expressed as p < 0.001, p < 0.05, p < 0.1 or NS (p ≥ 0.1), PB = probability value for between levels (see Methods) similarly expressed.
  13. c All or nearest available, must include at least squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.