Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Figure 22 | BMC Cancer

Figure 22

From: Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence in the 1900s relating smoking to lung cancer

Figure 22

Forest plot of handrolled vs. manufactured cigarette smoking and all lung cancer. Table 14 presents the results of a meta-analysis for all lung cancer based on 20 relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) estimates for handrolled vs. manufactured cigarette smoking. The individual study estimates are shown numerically and graphically on a logarithmic scale. The studies are sorted on sex within study reference (REF) within start year of study (START) within continent (CONT). In the graphical representation individual RRs are indicated by a solid square, with the area of the square proportional to the weight (inverse-variance of log RR). Arrows indicate where the CI extends outside the range allocated. Also shown are the combined random-effects estimates. These are represented by a diamond of standard height, with the width indicating the 95% CI.

Back to article page