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Table 4 Subgroup analyses of association between mean global methylation level in leukocyte DNA and endogenous sex hormone level by alcohol drinking status and folate intake

From: Association of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women

Multivariate-adjusted* Multivariate-adjusted* P for interaction
β 95% confidence interval P value β 95% confidence interval P value
Alcohol drinking = Non-drinker Alcohol drinking = Drinker†  
Estradiol (pg/mL)
-0.09 (-0.57, 0.39) 0.71 -0.52 (-1.37, 0.32) 0.22 0.16
Bioavailable estradiol (%)
0.49 (0.01, 0.97) 0.04 0.26 (-0.60, 1.13) 0.54 0.09
Estrone (pg/mL)
-0.28 (-0.77, 0.21) 0.26 -0.48 (-1.29, 0.33) 0.24 0.34
Sex hormone binding globulin (nmol/L)
-0.11 (-0.61, 0.38) 0.65 0.03 (-0.77, 0.83) 0.95 0.26
Androstenedione (ng/mL)
-0.23 (-0.74, 0.29) 0.39 -0.14 (-0.99, 0.70) 0.74 0.92
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (ug/dL)
0.11 (-0.41, 0.63) 0.67 -0.78 (-1.56, 0.001) 0.05 0.03
Testosterone (ng/mL)
-0.24 (-1.36, 0.88) 0.67 -0.20 (-1.95, 1.54) 0.81 0.44
Folate intake = Low‡ Folate intake = High§
Estradiol (pg/mL)
-0.05 (-0.71, 0.61) 0.88 -0.38 (-0.94, 0.18) 0.18 0.79
Bioavailable estradiol (%)
0.64 (-0.02, 1.30) 0.06 0.26 (-0.37, 0.88) 0.42 0.47
Estrone (pg/mL)
-0.30 (-0.92, 0.32) 0.34 -0.35 (-0.94, 0.24) 0.25 0.93
Sex hormone binding globulin (nmol/L)
0.08 (-0.61, 0.77) 0.82 -0.12 (-0.73, 0.48) 0.69 0.74
Androstenedione (ng/mL)
-0.67 (-1.36, 0.02) 0.06 -0.04 (-0.60, 0.51) 0.88 0.07
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (ug/dL)
-0.45 (-1.07, 0.17) 0.15 -0.12 (-0.69, 0.46) 0.68 0.42
Testosterone (ng/mL)
-0.82 (-2.30, 0.65) 0.27 0.45 (-0.86, 1.76) 0.49 0.08
  1. * Adjusted for age (continuous), family history of breast cancer (yes, no), history of benign breast disease (yes, no), age at menarche (continuous), age at menopause (continuous), number of births (0, 1, 2-3, 4+), age at first birth (≤24, 25-26, ≥27, nulliparous), height (continuous), body mass index (continuous), smoking (never smokers, ever smokers), alcohol drinking (non-drinkers, occasional drinkers, regular drinkers), physical activity in past 5 years (no, ≤2 days/week, ≥3 days/week), and energy-adjusted folate intake (continuous).
  2. † Median consumption of ethanol = 48.3 g per week.
  3. ‡ Median consumption of folate = 378.5 ug per day.
  4. § Median consumption of folate = 578.1 ug per day.