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Table 3 Mean global methylation level in leukocyte DNA by endogenous sex hormone level

From: Association of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women

  Median No. of subjects Crude Multivariate-adjusted*
Mean (%) Mean (%) 95% confidence interval β 95% confidence interval P value
Estradiol (pg/mL)
Lowest 6.8 45 70.3 71.0 (68.9, 73.1)    
Second 8.2 45 70.8 71.5 (69.5, 73.4)    
Third 9.7 47 70.6 71.2 (69.3, 73.1)    
Highest 11.4 48 69.4 70.2 (68.2, 72.1)    
Continuous (per quartile category) -0.27 (-0.68, 0.15) 0.20
Bioavailable estradiol (%)
Lowest 16.6 45 69.5 69.7 (67.6, 71.8)    
Second 20.6 47 70.7 71.2 (69.3, 73.0)    
Third 26.0 44 70.5 70.8 (68.8, 72.9)    
Highest 32.5 49 70.4 71.2 (69.2, 73.2)    
Continuous (per quartile category) 0.41 (-0.01, 0.84) 0.06
Estrone (pg/mL)
Lowest 15.0 38 70.6 71.6 (69.6, 73.7)    
Second 21.0 54 70.6 71.8 (69.8, 73.7)    
Third 25.5 40 70.8 71.8 (69.8, 73.9)    
Highest 31.0 53 69.3 70.4 (68.6, 72.3)    
Continuous (per quartile category) -0.39 (-0.80, 0.02) 0.06
Sex hormone binding globulin (nmol/L)
Lowest 44.1 46 69.9 70.9 (68.9, 72.8)    
Second 67.1 46 70.5 71.6 (69.6, 73.6)    
Third 84.9 45 70.8 71.7 (69.7, 73.7)    
Highest 113.5 48 69.9 70.7 (68.8, 72.6)    
Continuous (per quartile category) -0.05 (-0.47, 0.37) 0.81
Androstenedione (ng/mL)
Lowest 0.30 39 70.5 71.6 (69.5, 73.6)    
Second 0.60 44 70.1 71.2 (69.2, 73.1)    
Third 0.80 55 70.9 71.9 (69.9, 73.9)    
Highest 1.10 47 69.5 70.5 (68.7, 72.4)    
Continuous (per quartile category) -0.24 (-0.67, 0.19) 0.27
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (ug/dL)
Lowest 27.5 46 70.7 71.8 (69.7, 73.8)    
Second 45.0 45 69.8 70.7 (68.8, 72.7)    
Third 63.0 47 70.7 71.4 (69.5, 73.3)    
Highest 95.0 47 69.9 70.8 (68.8, 72.8)    
Continuous (per quartile category) -0.24 (-0.66, 0.18) 0.26
Testosterone (ng/mL)
Lowest 0.00 90 70.4 71.1 (69.3, 73.0)    
Highest 0.11 95 70.1 71.0 (69.1, 72.8)    
Continuous (per median category) -0.17 (-1.10, 0.77) 0.73
  1. * Adjusted for age (continuous), family history of breast cancer (yes, no), history of benign breast disease (yes, no), age at menarche (continuous), age at menopause (continuous), number of births (0, 1, 2-3, 4+), age at first birth (≤24, 25-26, ≥27, nulliparous), height (continuous), body mass index (continuous), smoking (never smokers, ever smokers), alcohol drinking (non-drinkers, occasional drinkers, regular drinkers), physical activity in past 5 years (no, ≤2 days/week, ≥3 days/week), and energy-adjusted folate intake (continuous).