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Table 7 Studies reporting penile human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in cancer-free men in Europea

From: Estimation of the epidemiological burden of human papillomavirus-related cancers and non-malignant diseases in men in Europe: a review

Author Country Anatomical site(s) Population Sample size Sampling techniques and detection methods HPV (%)
       Any 95%CI High-risk 95%CI
Bleeker 2005 [54] The Netherlands Glans, corona, frenulum and prepuce Partners of women with CIN 181 Cervex brush GP5+/6+ PCR 72.9 (65.8-79.3) 58.5 (51.0-79.3)
Kjaer 2005 [57] Denmark Glans and corona Danish soldiers 337 Penile swabs PCR 33.8 (28.8-39.2)   
Sirera 2006 [52] Spain Coronal sulcus, glans and urethra distal HIV+ men (MSM and HS) 74 (52 MSM 22 HS) Cytobrush PCR 38 (MSM) 32 (HS) (25-53) (14-55)   
Van der Snoek 2003 [40] The Netherlands Coronal sulcus STD clinic attendees; MSM HIV+ and HIV- 258 17HIV+ 241 HIV- Dry swab PCR + LiPA 23.5 (HIV+) 15.8 (HIV-) (6.81-49.9) (11.4-21.0)   
Bleeker 2002 [37] The Netherlands Glans, corona, frenulum and prepuce Partners of women with CIN 119 Cervex brush GP5+/6+ PCR 59.0 (49.4-67.8) 55.4 (46.1-67.8)
Svare 2002 [39] Denmark Glans, corona, shaft, scrotum and perianus STD clinic attendees 198 Scrapping plus pre-wetted swabs GP5+/6+ PCR 45.0 (37.9-52.2) 18.6 (12.5-52.2)
Wikstrom 2000 [58] Sweden Glans, corona, shaft, scrotum and perianus STD clinic attendees 235 Scrapping plus pre-wetted swabs GP5+/6+ PCR 20.4 (15.3-25.6) 12.8 (8.5-17.0)
Van Doornum 1994 [49] The Netherlands Corona, urethra, anus and rectum HS STD clinic attendees 85 Cotton swab/wooden spatula PCR 28.2 (19.0-39.0)   
Forslund 1999 [59] Sweden Urethra Military conscripts and adolescent clinic attendees 138 Prewetted brush PCR 8.7 (4.6-14.7)   
Hippelainen 1993 [31] Finland Glans, prepuce, sulcus, urethral meatus and urethra Finnish conscripts 285 Prewetted brush PCR 16.5 (12.4-21.3)   
Franceschi 2002 [60] Spain Glans, corona, and urethra Husbands of women with invasive cervical cancer 84 Cotton tipped Swabs PCR 11.9 (5.9-20.8) 1.2 (0.0-20.8)
    Husbands of women with cervical carcinoma in situ 102   21.6 (14.0-30.8) 6.9 (2.8-30.8)
    Husbands of control women 168   3.6 (1.3-7.6) 1.8 (0.4-7.6)
Wikstrom 1991 [58] Sweden Corona, prepuce, and urethral meatus STD clinic attendees, men with no history of genital warts 135 PCR    13.3 (8.1-59.1)
Barzon 2010 [55] Italy Glans/Corona, penile shaft, urethra Males presenting for screening for STDs, investigation of suspected HPV-related lesions, or because of HPV-positive partners 947 Swabs PCR Glans/ corona: 43.3 Penile shaft: 58.3 Urethra: 31.0 Semen: 23.9 (39.0-47,6) (47.8-68.3) (25.6-36.5) (19.0-28.8) 12.2 9.4 7.3 5.6 (9.32-15.0) (4.38-17.05) (4.2-10.4) (18.9-28.8)
Kataoka, 1991 [32] Sweden Urethra Army conscripts 105 Brushing PCR 17.1 (9.9-24.4)   
Hillman, 1993 [61] United Kingdom Urethra Urine STD clinic attendees 100 urethra samples 88 urine specimen Cotton-tipped swabs Urine sample PCR Urethra: 18.0 Urine: 12.5 (10.5-25.5) (5.6-19.4) Urethra: 12.0 Urine: 9.1 (5.6-18.4) (3.1-15.1)
Aynaud, 2002 [53] France Semen Men with normal peniscopy whose female partners have genital HPV lesions 46 Ejaculate PCR 2.2 (0-6.4) NI  
Aynaud, 2003 [62] France Meatal-urethral smears Men with normal peniscopy whose female partners have genital HPV lesions 34 Brushing PCR 2.9 (0-8.4) NI  
Giovanelli, 2007 [63] Italy Penile shaft, foreskin, coronal sulcus, frenulum, glans, semen Partners of HPV-positive women 50 Cotton-tipped swab, cytobrush, ejaculate PCR 72.0 (59.6-84.4) 56.0 (42.2-69.8)
Benevolo, 2008 [64] Italy Penile shaft, prepuce, coronal sulcus, glans, distal urethra Male partners of women with CIN and/or positive HPV 71 Cytobrush PCR 35.2 (24.1-46.3) 31.0 (20.2-41.7)
Bleeker, 2004 [65] The Netherlands Glans, corona, sulcus, frenulum, foreskin Men with female partners, visiting department of dermatology for non-STD complaints 83 Brushing PCR 25.3 (15.9-34.7) 19.3 (10.8-27.8)
Castellsagué, 1997 [66] Bosch, 1996 [67] Spain Intrameatal and distal urethra, glans, coronal sulcus Male partners of women with cervical cancer 183 Cotton-tipped swabs 17.5 (12.0-23.0) 15.8 (10.6-21.1)
    Male partners of control women 171   3.5 (0.8-6.3) 2.3 (0.1-4.6)
Voog, 1997 [68] Sweden Glans penis, prepuce STD clinic attendees 20 Cytobrush 25 (6.0-44.0) NI  
Strand, 1993 [69] Sweden Urethra, glans penis, sulcus, preputium, penile shaft STD clinic attendees 65 Plastic probe + cytobrush 29.2 (18.2-40.3) NI  
  1. CI confidence interval, CIN cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, MSM men who have sex with men, HS heterosexual, STD sexually transmitted disease
  2. a 26 European countries