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Table 3 Multivariate hazard ratios (HR) for all prostate cancers and those with Gleason grade ≥ 8 by cholesterol quintiles

From: Cholesterol and the risk of grade-specific prostate cancer incidence: evidence from two large prospective cohort studies with up to 37 years' follow up

  All Prostate Cancers Prostate cancers Gleason ≥ 8
  Baseline Sample From 1st January 1997
  % n Hazard Ratio (95% CI) % n Hazard Ratio (95% CI)
Cholesterol (mmol/L) quintiles           
< 5.05 5.1 (138)   1 1.2 (17)   1
5.06 - < 5.57 4.7 (121) 0.89 (0.70, 1.14) 1.5 (19) 1.18 (0.62, 2.28)
5.58 - < 6.09 5.1 (145) 0.95 (0.75, 1.21) 2.1 (30) 1.72 (0.95, 3.13)
6.1 - < 6.69 5.5 (125) 1.01 (0.79, 1.29) 2.8 (33) 2.34 (1.30, 4.23)
≥6.7 4.8 (121) 0.95 (0.74, 1.22) 1.7 (20) 1.40 (0.73, 2.71)
BMI (kg m -2 )           
< 25 (Under & Desirable weight) 4.8 (279)   1 2.1 (61)   1
25 - < 30 (Overweight) 5.3 (320) 1.02 (0.86, 1.20) 1.5 (47) 0.69 (0.47, 1.02)
≥30 (Obese) 4.6 (51) 1.03 (0.77, 1.40) 2.3 (11) 1.18 (0.62, 2.27)
Smoking           
Never smoker 6.6 (149)   1 2.1 (31)   1
Smoker 3.9 (294) 0.90 (0.73, 1.09) 1.6 (52) 0.92 (0.59, 1.45)
Ex-smoker 6.6 (207) 1.03 (0.77, 1.40) 2.1 (36) 1.06 (0.65, 1.72)
Social Class           
I&II 5.8 (190)   1 1.9 (38)   1
IIIN 5.6 (108) 1.10 (0.87, 1.40) 2.2 (22) 1.21 (0.71, 2.05)
IIIM 4.7 (217) 1.03 (0.85, 1.26) 1.6 (33) 0.95 (0.59, 1.53)
IV&V 4.2 (135) 0.91 (0.73, 1.14) 1.9 (26) 1.15 (0.69, 1.92)
Height (cm)           
≤165.1 4.9 (120)   1 1.8 (17)   1
165.2-170 4.7 (126) 1.05 (0.82, 1.35) 1.8 (23) 1.27 1(0.68, 2.37)
170.1-172.72 4.2 (121) 1.11 (0.86, 1.43) 1.4 (22) 1.54 (0.61, 2.19)
172.73-177.8 7.5 (165) 1.27 (1.01, 1.61) 3.2 (36) 1.69 (0.94, 3.05)
≥177.9 4.3 (118) 1.35, (1.04 1.75) 1.3 (21) 1.32 (0.68, 2.55)
  1. Multivariate hazard ratios and 95% CIs were obtained by using age as time-scale; all covariates were included in the model except height. Estimates for height were obtained by replacing the BMI with height