Effect of ROS on upregulation of DR4 or DR5 through JNK activation by snake venom toxin. a, Effect of antioxidant (NAC) on the cell viabilty induced by snake venom toxin. Cells were pretreated with various concentratins of NAC (0, 1, 10 mM) for 1 h and then treated with 1 μg/ml of snake venom toxin for 30 min, and whole cell extracts were analyzed by western blotting using the relevant antibodies. b, Effect of NAC on the expression of death receptors and JNK phosphorylation. Cells were pretreated with NAC for 1 h, and then cells were treated with snake venom toxin for 30 min, and whole cell extracts were analyzed by Western blotting using DR4, DR5, p-JNK and β-actin antibodies. Each band is representative for three experiments. Columns, means of three experiments, with triplicates of each experiment; bars, SD. *, p <0.05, significantly different from non treated control group. #, p <0.01 significantly different from SVT-treated group.