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Table 6 Results of quantitative studies comparing different patient groups

From: A systematic review of the impact of stigma and nihilism on lung cancer outcomes

Study Participants Outcome Main findings
Lung (N = 96) vs breast (N = 30) or prostate (N = 46) cancer patients
LoConte 2008: Else-Quest 2009 USA    Baseline differences between groups
Stage IV Patient  
Lung cancer patients Guilt and shame (SSGS) NS^
100% NSCLC Shame subscale NS^
Perceived cancer related stigma (5 items) p < 0.01^ greater for those with lung cancer
Lung (N = 89) vs breast (N = 30) vs prostate (N = 43) cancer patients
LoConte 2008: Else-Quest 2009
USA
   Baseline differences between groups
Stage IV Patient  
Lung cancer patients Guilt and shame (SSGS) NS^^
100% NSCLC Perceived stigma (single item) NS^^
Smoking history (N = 88) vs Never smoker (N = 8) lung cancer patients
LoConte 2008: Else-Quest 2009 USA    Differences between groups
Stage IV NSCLC Patient  
  Guilt and shame (SSGS) p = 0.02* greater for those with a smoking history
Perceived cancer related stigma (5 items) NR
Current smoker (N = 25) vs Former smoker (N = 66) vs Never smoker (N = 9) lung cancer patients
Lobchuk 2008b Canada 58% diagnosed with Patient Differences between groups
advanced disease 76% NSCLC Primary caregiver blame re patient’s efforts to control the disease - single item p < 0.05^^ greater for current vs never smokers
p < 0.05^^ greater for former vs never smokers
Lung vs breast cancer
Wassenaar 2007 USA   Physician Differences between groups
Different stages Referrals to clinical oncologist for the scenarios:  
after surgery for stage 1B disease p = 0.86*
hepatic and lung metastases – good performance status p < 0.001* lower for lung cancer
metastases - poor performance status p < 0.001* lower for lung cancer
advanced disease – solely for supportive or palliative care p = 0.009* higher for lung cancer
Reported importance of type of cancer as a factor contributing to decision to refer to oncologist p = 0.19#
Belief that chemotherapy could improve survival for:  
stage IB resected disease p = 0.001* lower for lung cancer
metastatic disease – good performance status p = 0.015* lower for lung cancer
  1. ECOG = Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group; NSCLC = Non small cell lung cancer; SCLC = Small cell lung cancer; SSGS = State Shame and Guilt Scale; NR = Not reported; NS = Not statistically significantly different; ^ MANCOVA with sex, age and time since diagnosis taken into account; ^^ Univariate ANOVA; * 2-sided t test: * Chi-squared or Fisher’s exact test: # Non parametric Wilcoxon rank sum test.