Rapamycin induced p-Akt in HCCLM3 cells, whereas bortezomib inhibited p-Akt. (A) HCCLM3 cells were incubated with culture media or rapamycin (1–100 ng/ml) for 24 h or rapamycin (10 ng/ml) for the indicated periods. (B) HCCLM3 cells were incubated for 24 h with culture media, bortezomib (10–1000 nM), or bortezomib (100 nM) for the indicated time. (C) Rapamycin is added to HCC cells for 3–6 h prior to the addition of bortezomib, and then the cells were cultured for 24 h in the presence of bortezomib at the concentration of 100 nM. (D, E) HCCLM3 cells were cultured in control media, rapamycin (10 ng/ml), bortezomib (100 nmol/L), or the combination of rapamycin and bortezomib for 24 h. *
P < 0.05, versus control group; **
P < 0.01, versus control group; #
P < 0.001, versus rapamycin treatment group.