Twist activates β-catenin pathway. (a) The expression of total, membrane, cytosol, nuclear and phosphorylated forms of β-catenin were examined by Western blotting. β-tubulin served as a loading control. (b) The activation of β-catenin was examined by measuring the transcription activity of Top/Fop luciferase in Hela and MCF cells and their corresponding stable transfectants (mean ± SD of three separate experiments). * and # P < 0.05 for Hela and MCF7 cells compared with their corresponding Twist-overexpressing cells.