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Table 3 Association of HDACs with clinicopathological parameters

From: Expression pattern of class I histone deacetylases in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and vulvar cancer: a tissue microarray study

  Total HDAC1 low HDAC1 high p HDAC2 low HDAC2 high p HDAC3 low HDAC3 high p
All Cases 163 70 (42.9%) 93 (57.1%) -- 38 (23.3%) 125 (76.7%) -- 32 (19.6%) 131 (80.4%) --
   VIN 106 45 (42.5%) 61 (57.5%) 0.87 12 (11.3%) 94 (88.7%) < 0.001 28 (26.4%) 78 (73.6%) 0.003
   VSCC 57 25 (43.9% 32 (56.1%)   26 (45.6%) 31 (54.4%)   4 (7.0%) 53 (93.0%)  
   p16 neg 39 17 (43.6%) 22 (56.4%) 1.00 10 (25.6%) 29 (74.4%) 0.67 4 (10.3%) 35 (89.7%) 0.109
   p16 pos 124 53 (42.7%) 71 (57.3%)   28 (22.6%) 96 (77.4%)   28 (22.6%) 96 (77.4%)  
   Age ≤ 60 93 41 (44.1%) 52 (55.9%) 0.752 22 (23.7%) 71 (76.3%) 1.00 21 (22.6%) 72 (77.4%) 0.322
   Age > 60 70 29 (41.4%) 41 (58.6%)   16 (22.9%) 54 (77.1%)   11 (15.7%) 59 (84.3%)  
VSCC°           
   pT1 20 7 (35.0%) 13 (65.0%) 0.556* 5 (25.0%) 15 (75.0%) 0.057* 1 (5.0%) 19 (95.0%) 0.831*
   pT2 24 11 (45.8%) 13 (54.2%)   13 (54.2%) 11 (45.8%)   2 (8.3%) 22 (91.7%)  
   pT3 9 5 (55.6%) 4 (44.4%)   6 (66.7%) 3 (33.3%)   1 (11.1%) 8 (88.9%)  
   pN0 23 9 (39.1%) 14 (60.9%) 0.763 9 (39.1%) 14 (60.9%) 0.366 1 (4.3%) 22 (95.7%) 1.00
   pN1/2 20 9 (45.0%) 11 (55.0%)   11 (55.0%) 9 (45.0%)   1 (5.0%) 19 (95.0%)  
   G1 12 5 (41.7%) 7 (58.3%) 0.009* 7 (58.3%) 5 (41.7%) 0.602* 1 (8.3%) 11 (91.7%) 0.513*
   G2 29 8 (27.6%) 21 (72.4%)   12 (41.4%) 17 (58.6%)   1 (3.4%) 28 (96.6%)  
   G3 16 12 (75%) 4 (25.0%)   7 (43.8%) 9 (56.3%)   2 (12.5%) 14 (87.5%)  
VIN           
   Ki-67 ≤ 10% 11 9 (81%) 2 (18.2%) 0.008 3 (27.3%) 8 (72.7%) 0.109 4 (36.4%) 7 (63.6%) 0.476
   Ki-67 > 10% 95 36 (37.9%) 59 (62.1%)   9 (9.5%) 86 (90.5%)   24 (25.3%) 71 (74.7%)  
VSCC           
   Ki-67 ≤ 10% 19 8 (42.1%) 11 (57.9%) 1.00 14 (73.7%) 5 (26.3%) 0.004 2 (10.5%) 17 (89.5%) 0.594
   Ki-67 > 10% 38 17 (44.7%) 21 (55.3%)   12 (31.6%) 26 (68.4%)   2 (5.3%) 36 (94.7%)  
  1. HDAC immunoreactivity score (IRS) has been dichotomized in two groups; HDAC 1 to 3 "high" represent tissue samples with a IRS of 12, HDAC 1 to 3 "low", a IRS less than 12. Clinicopathological parameters investigated in this study are listed in the first column; Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), vulvar squamous cell cancer (VSCC); p-16 as a surrogate marker for human papilloma virus (HPV) infection as described before [2123]; patient younger than 60 years (Age ≤ 60), patient equal or elder than 60 years (Age > 60); related pTNM-stage and tissue differentiation (G1 to G3) in VSCC. Nuclear Ki-67 protein is a marker for cell proliferation. "Ki-67 ≤ 10%" means that 10 percent or less of the cells are proliferating.
  2. Percentages in parentheses are according to the total number of samples in the first column. P-values result from the association of HDAC low and high groups to one parameter, such as tissue type VIN versus VSCC. Where not specified, Fisher's exact test was used to calculate p-values. P-values labeled by * have been obtained by χ-square test. For a facilitated reading, corresponding data to p-values are in one grid each.
  3. ° T-stage: 6 cases missing at all, no cases of pT4; N-stage: 15 cases missing; M-stage: not shown, 30 cases with no investigation and or data missing.