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Table 2 Risk factors for development of fractures or bone mineral density lossa

From: Increased fracture rate in women with breast cancer: a review of the hidden risk

Modifiable risk factors Other risk factors
Excessive alcohol consumption
Tobacco use
Existing low body mass index (< 20 kg/m2) and excessive weight loss
Falls
Sedentary lifestyleb
Low calcium or vitamin D intake
Use of medications affecting absorption of calcium
or absorption or production of vitamin Db
Use of corticosteroidsb
Use of medications decreasing the production of estrogen or testosteroneb
Low estrogen or testosterone levels
Age
Low bone mass
Race (Asian, white)
Fracture history (personal, familial)b
Diabetes
Rheumatoid arthritis
Emphysema, chronic bronchitis
Renal insufficiency
  1. a Adapted with permission of the Oncology Nursing Society from Maxwell C, Viale PH. (2005) Cancer treatment-induced bone loss in patients with breast or prostate cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2005;32:589-603 [21].
  2. b Data from Chen Z, et al. Arch Intern ed. 2005;165:552-558 [4].