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Table 5 ORs of breast cancer associated with total intake of antioxidants, NECSS,Canada,1994-1997

From: Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

  Premenopausal Postmenopausal
Variable Cases Controls OR † (95% CI) p Cases Controls OR†† (95% CI) p
Beta-carotene         
   From Diet only         
Low or no intake 423 435 1.00   781 837 1.00  
High intake * 443 410 1.09 (0.88-1.34) 0.43 715 780 0.96 (0.82-1.13) 0.66
   From supplementation only         
Low or no intake 864 836 1.00   1487 1598 1.00  
High intake** 2 9 0.11 (0.01-0.88) 0.04 9 19 0.47 (0.20-1.08) 0.07
   From both sources         
Low or no intake 856 833 1.00   1473 1589 1.00  
High intake*** 10 12 0.77 (0.32-1.87) 0.57 23 28 0.69 (0.37-1.27) 0.23
Vitamin C (years)         
   From Diet only         
Low or no intake 467 489 1.00   861 962 1.00  
High intake * 399 356 1.23 (0.99-1.53) 0.06 635 655 1.24 (0.99-1.42) 0.07
   From supplementation only         
Low or no intake 823 794 1.00   1405 1524 1.00  
High intake** 43 51 0.70 (0.44-1.10) 0.12 91 93 0.85 (0.61-1.17) 0.32
   From both sources         
Low or no intake 812 779 1.00   1352 1463 1.00  
High intake*** 54 66 0.65 (0.44-0.98) 0.04 144 154 0.78 (0.60-1.03) 0.08
Vitamin E (years)         
   From Diet only         
Low or no intake 451 454 1.00   837 922 1.00  
High intake * 415 391 0.98 (0.78-1.22) 0.85 659 695 1.06 (0.89-1.25) 0.53
   From supplementation only         
Low or no intake 852 828 1.00   1451 1555 1.00  
High intake** 14 17 0.72 (0.33-1.59) 0.42 45 62 0.64 (0.42-0.99) 0.04
   From both sources         
Low or no intake 841 814 1.00   1392 1503 1.00  
High intake*** 25 31 0.71 (0.40-1.25) 0.23 104 114 0.86 (0.64-1.17) 0.35
Zinc (years)         
   From Diet only         
Low or no intake 430 451 1.00   747 855 1.00  
High intake * 436 394 1.13 (0.89-1.45) 0.32 749 762 1.13 (0.94-1.35) 0.20
   From supplementation only         
Low or no intake 859 830 1.00   1487 1597 1.00  
High intake** 7 15 0.29 (0.10-0.83) 0.02 9 20 0.41 (0.18-0.96) 0.04
   From both sources         
Low or no intake 855 831 1.00   1478 1590 1.00  
High intake*** 11 14 0.73 (0.31-1.72) 0.47 18 27 0.51 (0.27-0.97) 0.04
Selenium (years)         
   From Diet only         
Low or no intake 417 426 1.00   747 822 1.00  
High intake * 449 419 1.01 (0.79-1.29) 0.93 749 795 0.99 (0.82-1.18) 0.88
   From supplementation only         
Low or no intake 861 834 1.00   1488 1604 1.00  
High intake** 5 11 0.39 (0.13-1.16) 0.09 8 13 0.50 (0.19-1.32) 0.16
   From both sources         
Low or no intake 861 842 1.00   1480 1603 1.00  
High intake*** 5 3 1.77 (0.33-9.69) 0.51 16 14 0.82 (0.37-1.80) 0.61
  1. † Adjusted for age, province of residence, education, smoking pack years, alcohol consumption, number of live births, age at menarche, and total energy intake.
  2. †† Adjusted for age, province of residence, education, smoking pack years, alcohol consumption, BMI, recreational physical activity, number of live births, age at menarche, and total energy intake.
  3. * In comparison with low intake (lower than median intake).
  4. ** In comparison with low intake (less than 10 years of supplementation).
  5. *** In comparison with not high intake from both sources.