BA decreases MMP and induces ROS in RKO cells. (A) Induction of ROS. RKO cells were treated with 15 μM BA, catalase or BA plus catalase for 36 h and ROS production was determined using the fluorescent probe H2DCFDA as described in the Materials and Methods. Role of ROS in BA-induced Sp downregulation (B) and growth inhibition and BA effects on MMP (C). Cells were treated with DMSO (control), BA, catalase or BA plus catalase and Sp proteins (in whole cell lysates), MMP and cell growth were determined as described in the Materials and Methods. Results (C) are expressed as means ± SE for 3 replicate experiments and significant (p < 0.05) growth inhibition by BA (*) and rescue by catalase (**) are indicated. BA-induced inhibition of MMP was not affected by cotreatment with catalase (data not shown).