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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients in the 21 eligible studies included in the meta-analyses

From: Diagnostic value of circulating tumor cell detection in bladder and urothelial cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

First author (year of publication)
(reference)
Country of origin CTC+ patients (marker used) CTC+ controls (marker used) Patient age (years) Tumor histology Tumor location Tumor stage
(AJCC)
Rate of CTC+ stage ≤II pts (marker used) Rate of CTC+ stage III-IV pts
(Marker used)
     Median (range) Mean (range)      
Gazzaniga (2005)[37] Italy 11/19 (Tenascin C), 11/19 (EGFR) 0/40 (Tenascin C)
0/40 (EGFR)
NR NR NR B I-IV NR NR
Ribal (2006)[23] Spain 23/70 0/22 65 (44-81) - TCC B 0a-IV 4/31 17/39
Champelovier (1999)[38] France 3/4 21/29 NR NR NR B NR NR NR
Okegawa (2004)[39] Japan 25/108 (UP II), 31/108 (CK-20) Healthy volunteers: 0/20 for either marker; nonmalignant bladder disease patients: 0/10 for UP II and 2/10 for CK-20 Bladder cancer and nonmalignant bladder patients: 57 (42-75); healthy volunteers: 41 (21-52) - TCC B 0a-IV 20/91 (CK-20)
14/91 (UP II)
11/17 (CK-20)
11/17 (UP II)
Retz (2001)[24] Germany 2/20 0/10 (isolated PBMN) (34-79) - NR B 0a-IV 0/14 2/6
Gudemann (2000)[16] Germany 12/49 Healthy volunteers: 0/22; urocystitis patients: 0/6; benign renal tumor patients: 0/6; patients with prior history of urothelial cancer but no evidence of recurrence: 0/4 Cancer patients: 68 (60-75); urocystitis patients: 72 (68-74) - TCC B: 48/49
U/P: 1/49
0a-IV 5/35 7/14
Li (1999)[40] U.S.A. 3/60 0/10 NR NR TCC B NR NR NR
Soria (2002)[25] France 27/30 0/17 Patients: 68.5 (49-99); controls: (26-58) - NR B 0-IV 14/15 13/15
Desgrandchamps (1999)[41] U.K. 1/31 0/2 (initially thought to have malignant bladder disease, one patient was found to have nonspecific inflammation and one schistosomiasis) NR NR TCC B 0a-IV 0/25 1/6
Naoe (2007)[18] Japan 8/26 No controls assessed 70.5 (55-85) - TCC B: 22/26
U: 3/26
P: 1/26
0a-IV 0/8 8/18
Kinjo (2004)[19] Japan 18/38 0/18 (UTI n = 6; BPH n = 7; other benign conditions n = 5) Cancer patients: 67 (35-87); controls:56 (18-78) - TCC:36/38; TCC+sq:1/38; TCC+ad:1/38 B 0a-IV 13/33 5/5
Guzzo (2009)[26] U.S.A. 9/43 No controls assessed - 67.5 (46-83) TCC B 0a-IV 2/17 7/26
Allard (2004)[43] U.S.A. 6/7 8/145 healthy pre- and post-menopausal women had 1 CTC; 14/199 women with benign breast diseases had 1 CTC (none had ≥2 CTCs) NR NR NR B IV NR NR
Lu (2000)[20] Japan 15/56 0/10 healthy volunteers; 0/10 patients with renal cell cancer 71.5 (35-87) 69.41 TCC B: 42/56
B/U: 1/56
U: 9/56
P: 4/56
0a-IV 4/34 11/22
Osman (2004)[45] U.S.A. 21/48 (UP Ia), 10/48 (UP Ib), 25/48 (UP II), 11/48 (UP III), 26/48 (EGFR)a 5/14 (UP Ia), 7/14 (UP Ib), 5/14 (UP II), 10/14 (UP III), 10/14 (EGFR)a 64 (42-88) - NR B III-IV NR NR
Rink (2011)[27] Germany 20/55 1/10 Patients: 67 (44-89); healthy volunteers: 45 Patients:66; healthy volunteers: 46 TCC B 0a-IV NR NR
Fujii (1999)[21] Japan 9/40 0/25 NR NR TCC B: 27/40
U/P: 12/40
Urethra: 1/40
0a-IV NR NR
Okegawa (2010)[22] Japan 11/36 No controls assessed Stages I-II patients: 71; stage III-IV patients: 68 - TCC B: 28/36
U/P: 8/36
I-IV 0/16 11/20
Gradilone (2010)[48] Italy 24/54 (CD45-/CK8+),
22/54 (survivin)
0/20 57.5 (51-64) - NR B I NR NR
Meye (2002) Germany 18/34 0/20 NR NR TCC B NR NR NR
Gazzaniga (2001)[50] Italy 20/27 (EGFR); 17/27 (UP II); 11/27 (CK-19); 4/27 (CK-20) Healthy volunteers: 0/30 (EGFR), 0/30 (UP II), 6/30 (CK-19), 4/30 (CK-20); cystitis patients: 0/9 (EGFR), 3/9 (UP II), 3/9 (CK-19), 2/9 (CK-20) NR NR TCC B Oa-IV 2/8 (EGFR)
7/8 (UP II)
1/8 (CK-19)
1/8 (CK-20)
18/19 (EGFR)
3/19 (UP II)
10/19 (CK-19)
3/19 (CK-20)
  1. aBladder cancer patients in this study were defined as those with disease at the end of follow up; controls were defined as those without disease at end of follow up
  2. B, bladder; BPH, benign prostatic hyperplasia; CK, cytokeratin; CTC+, circulating tumor cell positive; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; NR, not reported/retrievable; P, renal pelvis; PBMN, peripheral blood mononucleocytes; pts, patients; TCC, transitional cell cancer; TCC+ad, transitional cell cancer with adenocarcinoma component; TCC+sq, transitional cell cancer with squamous component; U, ureter; UP, uroplakin; UTI, urinary tract infection.