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Table 3 Adjusteda relative risk of mortality associated with herbal remedy use among 371 participants, 1999-2007

From: The roles of herbal remedies in survival and quality of life among long-term breast cancer survivors - results of a prospective study

  All-cause mortality Breast cancer mortality
  No. Subjects No. deaths AdjustedaRR (95% CI) No. Subjects No. deaths AdjustedaRR (95% CI)
Overall herbal remedy use       
   No 154 14 1.00 154 9 1.00
   Yes 217 30 1.28 (0.62-2.64) 217 24 1.78 (0.72-4.40)
By type       
Echinacea use       
   No 264 30 1.00 264 20 1.00
   Yes 107 14 1.14 (0.55-2.35) 107 13 1.85 (0.80-4.29)
Herbal tea used as a remedy       
   No 294 31 1.00 294 22 1.00
   Yes 77 13 1.61 (0.78-3.29) 66 11 1.90 (0.83-4.35)
Ginko biloba use       
   No 301 37 1.00 301 27 1.00
   Yes 70 7 0.80 (0.34-1.89) 70 6 0.99 (0.38-2.60)
  1. aAdjusted for ethnicity, age at diagnosis, stage of cancer at diagnosis, type of non-surgical treatment, type of surgery, post-diagnosis cancer-related conditions, comorbidities, interval between diagnosis and baseline interview, annual income at baseline interview.