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Table 3 Hazard ratios in metformin-treated type 2 diabetes for cancer incidence

From: Type 2 diabetes increases and metformin reduces total, colorectal, liver and pancreatic cancer incidences in Taiwanese: a representative population prospective cohort study of 800,000 individuals

Cancer type cancer cases/total ID Model 1
HR (95%CI)
Model 2§
HR (95%CI)
Model 3
HR (95%CI)
Total cancer      
Comparator†† 140/4327 91.7 ref. ref. ref.
Metformin users 199/11390 44.8 0.47 (0.38-0.59)*** 0.50 (0.40-0.62)*** 0.12 (0.08-0.19)***
Esophagus cancer      
Comparator†† 6/4193 4.03 ref. ref. ref.
Metformin users 21/11212 4.78 1.15 (0.46-2.84) 1.27 (0.51-3.16) 0.44 (0.07-2.61)
Stomach cancer      
Comparator†† 10/4197 6.71 ref. ref. ref.
Metformin users 24/11215 5.46 0.78 (0.37-1.63) 0.86 (0.41-1.81) 1.41 (0.42-4.73)
Colorectal cancer      
Comparator†† 26/4213 17.4 ref. ref. ref.
Metformin users 30/11221 6.83 0.38 (0.23-0.65)*** 0.42 (0.25-0.71)** 0.36 (0.13-0.98)*
Liver cancer      
Comparator†† 28/4215 18.7 ref. ref. ref.
Metformin users 45/11236 10.2 0.53 (0.33-0.85)** 0.54 (0.34-0.87)* 0.06 (0.02-0.16)***
Pancreas cancer      
Comparator†† 7/4194 4.70 ref. ref. ref.
Metformin users 21/11212 4.78 0.99 (0.42-2.33) 1.11 (0.47-2.62) 0.15 (0.03-0.79)*
  1. †: Incidence density per 10,000 person-years.
  2. ‡: Unadjusted hazard ratio, HR, (95% confidence interval, 95% CI), by Cox regression.
  3. §: Adjusted for age group, and gender.
  4. ¶: Adjusted for age group, gender, other oral anti-hyperglycemic medication, CCI score, and duration of metformin exposure which was treated as a time dependent variable
  5. ††: Diabetes patients who had no metformin, but might have used any other oral anti-hyperglycemic medication.
  6. *P < .05, **P < .01, ***P < .001
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