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Table 1 Characteristics of study subjects by diabetes and metformin using status

From: Type 2 diabetes increases and metformin reduces total, colorectal, liver and pancreatic cancer incidences in Taiwanese: a representative population prospective cohort study of 800,000 individuals

Descriptor Non-DM
(n = 10491)
DM without medication
(n = 8130)
DM without metformin§
(n = 4327)
DM with metformin¶
(n = 11390)
P-value
Age, n (%)      <0.001
   20-49 yr 2685 (25.6) 2230 (27.4) 1067 (24.7) 2977 (26.1)  
   50-59 yr 3483 (33.2) 2202 (27.1) 1156 (26.7) 3638 (31.9)  
   60-69 yr 2406 (22.9) 1639 (20.2) 940 (21.7) 2530 (22.2)  
   ≥70 yr 1917 (18.3) 2059 (25.3) 1164 (26.9) 2245 (19.7)  
Female gender, n (%) 4822 (46.0) 4177 (51.4) 1966 (45.4) 5134 (45.1) <0.001
Geographical area, n (%)      <0.001
   North 4938 (47.1) 4145 (51.0) 1731 (40.0) 5031 (44.2)  
   Central 2472 (23.6) 1739 (21.4) 1052 (24.3) 2638 (23.2)  
   South 2761 (26.3) 2032 (25.0) 1359 (31.4) 3285 (28.8)  
   East 250 (2.38) 150 (1.85) 138 (3.19) 357 (3.13)  
   Off-shore 70 (0.67) 64 (0.79) 47 (1.09) 79 (0.69)  
Charlson comorbidity index score      <0.001
   Mean ± SD 0.25 ± 1.28 5.29 ± 3.68 4.79 ± 3.77 4.38 ± 3.54  
   Median ± IQR 0.00 ± 0.00 5.00 ± 6.00 4.00 ± 5.00 4.00 ± 6.00  
   Min-Max 0-15 0-17 0-21 0-20  
Follow-up time (yr)      
   Mean ± SD 3.94 ± 2.09 3.94 ± 2.14 3.52 ± 2.10 3.90 ± 2.08  
   Median ± IQR 3.80 ± 3.49 3.80 ± 3.65 3.28 ± 3.47 3.76 ± 3.44  
   Min-Max 0.50-7.99 0.50-7.99 0.50-7.99 0.50-7.99  
Withdrawal from NHI, n (%) 451 (4.30) 157 (1.93) 88 (2.03) 240 (2.11)  
Mean daily metformin dose, n (%)      
   ≤500 mg     3460 (30.4)  
   500-1000 mg     4012 (35.2)  
   ≥1000 mg     3918 (34.4)  
Metformin use duration (day)      
   Mean ± SD     931 ± 765  
   Median ± IQR     755 ± 1200  
   Min-Max     1-2911  
  1. † Insured who had no diabetes (DM) and had not used diabetes medication during 1996-2007.
  2. ‡ Newly diagnosed DM patients who never used any DM medication during 2000-2007.
  3. § Newly diagnosed DM patients who never used insulin or metformin during 2000-2007.
  4. ¶ Newly diagnosed metformin-treated patients who never used insulin during 2000-2007.