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Table 1 Characteristics of patient participants

From: Complementary and alternative medicine use in oncology: A questionnaire survey of patients and health care professionals

Variables Number of Participants Number of CAM Users (%) p value (χ2)
Total 520 155 (29.8)  
Gender    <0.001
   Male 186 29 (15.6)  
   Female 330 124 (37.6)  
   Missing 4 2  
Age* 52.5 ± 16.9 49.1 ± 15.5 0.004
Ethnicity    0.385
   Caucasian 497 149 (30.0)  
   Non-Caucasian 4 2  
   Missing 19 4  
Educational background    <0.001
   Primary level 97 11 (11.3)  
   Secondary level 255 74 (29.0)  
   Tertiary level 154 66 (42.9)  
   Missing 13 4  
Annual household income    0.001
   <€20 000 197 43 (21.8)  
   €20 000 - €49 999 161 50 (31.1)  
   €50 000 - €99 999 71 33 (46.5)  
   >€100 000 12 5 (41.7)  
   Missing 79 24  
Health insurance    0.001
   None 71 242 26 (36.6) 52 (21.5)  
   Public Medical Card    
   Private Health Insurance 200 76 (38.0%)  
   Missing 7 1  
Religions    0.001
   Christian 486 138 (28.4)  
   Non-Christian 15 11 (73.3)  
   Missing 19 6  
Subgroups    0.369
   Non-cancer volunteers 301 93 (30.9)  
   Cancer patients 219 62 ((28.3)  
Breast 81 27 (33.3) 0.667
Colorectal 23 4  
Lymphoma 17 6  
Leukaemia 13 3  
Prostate 12 3  
Lung 12 2  
Ovarian 12 5  
Melanoma 12 6  
Head & Neck 7 0  
Oesophagus 5 1  
Kidney 5 1  
Brain 4 1  
Cervix 3 1  
Stomach 3 0  
Testicle 2 0  
Urinary bladder 2 0  
Non-melanoma skin 2 1  
Pancreatic 1 1  
Myeloma 1 0  
Missing 2 0  
HADS    
   High anxiety score (≥11) 44 13 (29.5) 0.350
   Low anxiety score (<11) 333 112 (33.6)  
   Missing 143 30  
   High depression score (≥11) 13 3 (23.1) 0.328
   Low depression score (<11) 386 128 (33.2)  
   Missing 121 24  
Karnofsky score    0.493
   80 - 100 106 33 (31.1)  
   50 - 70 36 7 (19.4)  
   0 - 40 6 1 (16.7)  
   Missing 76 24  
  1. * mean ± standard deviation
  2. student's t-test