YB-1/p18 identifies malignancies other than HCC in patients with chronic liver disease. A. Representative Western Blot for YB-1 from patients' plasma showing a specific signal at 18 kDa. The patient's number is given; #74 had hepatitis C virus related HCC, #75 alcohol-toxic cirrhosis, #76 alcohol-toxic cirrhosis and HCC, #78 had hepatitis C virus infection and cirrhosis without HCC, #79 had primary sclerosing cholangitis. Patient #77 had a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with hepatic metastases. Plasma from a patient with small cell lung cancer served as a positive control (lane 7). The relative optical density (OD) assessed by densiometry is given. Positivity was considered, if relative OD > 0.45. B. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis shows that positivity for AFP (area under the curve, AUC: 0.668) was superior to YB-1/p18 (0.511), CA 19-9 (0.404) and CEA (0.411) in identifying patients with HCC among chronic liver disease patients. C. In contrast, positivity for YB-1/p18 (AUC: 0.719) was the best predictor for other malignancies in the study population by ROC analysis, whereas AFP (0.548), CA 19-9 (0.657) or CEA (0.419) were less powerful.