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Table 2 Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for pancreatic cancer (PanCA) associated with smoking status, intensity and duration, San Francisco Bay Area, California

From: Cigarette, cigar and pipe smoking, passive smoke exposure, and risk of pancreatic cancer: a population-based study in the San Francisco Bay Area

   PanCAa Controlsa  
   N = 532 N = 1701 OR (95% CI)b
   n (%) n (%)  
  Never smoked 163 (32) 650 (40) 1.0 (Ref.)
Cigarette Smoking     
  Former smokerc 241 (47) 781 (48) 1.1 (0.87 - 1.4)
  Current smokerd 112 (22) 197 (12) 1.9 (1.4 - 2.7)
    P-trend 0.0002
Ever smoked cigars and/or pipese   100 (19) 334 (32) 0.88 (0.66 - 1.2)
Average cigarettes/day     
  <20 194 (38) 608 (37) 1.2 (0.92 - 1.5)
  20-<40 137 (27) 329 (20) 1.4 (1.0 - 1.9)
  40+ 22 (4) 41 (3) 1.8 (0.99 - 3.1)
    P-trend 0.008
Years smoked     
  <20 177 (34) 637 (39) 0.9 (0.68 - 1.7)
  20-<40 64 (12) 144 (9) 1.3 (0.98 - 1.7)
  40+ 112 (22) 197 (12) 1.8 (1.3 - 2.4)
    P-trend 0.0001
Pack years     
  <20 129 (25) 487 (30) 1.1 (0.81 - 1.4)
  20-<40 110 (21) 310 (19) 1.2 (0.90 - 1.6)
  40+ 114 (22) 181 (11) 2.0 (1.5 - 2.8)
    P-trend <.0001
  1. a The number of participants may vary because of missing data
  2. b Adjusted for: age, education, race, ethnicity, diabetes, pancreatitis, gallbladder disease, alcohol intake and body mass index
  3. c Includes smokers who quit ≥1 year prior to diagnosis/interview
  4. d Includes former smokers who quit within the immediate 1 year prior to interview
  5. e Includes cigar and pipe smokers who also smoked cigarettes and 16 cases and 73 controls who were cigar and/or pipe smokers who did not smoke cigarettes