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Table 4 Results of the frailty models to evaluate jointly the prognostic factors associated with any of the 5 types of failures: locoregional recurrence, contralateral breast cancer, metastases, 2nd cancer other than breast or breast cancer death

From: Separate and combined analysis of successive dependent outcomes after breast-conservation surgery: recurrence, metastases, second cancer and death

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Characteristic* RR
(95% CI)
RR
(95% CI)
RR
(95% CI)
Histological size of the tumor (for 1 mm increase) 1.03
(1.01-1.06)
1.02
(1.00-1.04)
1.02
(1.00-1.04)
Extensive intraductal component (EIC)    
   - No (ref) 1 1 1
   - Yes 1.91
(0.58-6.24)
1.44
(0.58-3.59)
1.21
(0.49-3.01)
Grade    
   - Grade 1 (ref) 1 1 1
   - Grade 2 2.06
(1.44-2.95)
1.77
(1.30-2.40)
1.69
(1.24-2.29)
   - Grade 3 3.19
(2.08-4.87)
2.41
(1.69-3.43)
2.32
(1.64-3.29)
# positive nodes    
   - 0 (ref) 1 1 1
   - 1-3 2.82
(1.62-4.91)
2.33
(1.52-3.57)
2.33
(1.52-3.55)
   - ≥4 6.16
(3.15-12.04)
4.60
(2.74-7.72)
3.97
(2.36-6.66)
Lympho-vascular invasion    
   - No (ref) 1 1 1
   - Yes 1.10
(0.80-1.52)
1.08
(0.85-1.38)
1.02
(0.80-1.30)
Surgical excision margin status    
   - Clear (ref) 1 1 1
   - Invasion 1.36
(1.02-1.82)
1.21
(0.96-1.52)
1.23
(0.97-1.54)
Progesterone receptor status    
   - Yes (ref) 1 1 1
   - No 1.45
(1.09-1.93)
1.43
(1.14-1.80)
1.46
(1.16-1.83)
Treatment combination    
   - Radiotherapy (ref) 1 1 1
   - Radio- and chemotherapy 0.50
(0.27-0.91)
0.55
(0.35-0.87)
0.59
(0.37-0.93)
   - Radio- and hormonal therapy 0.36
(0.19-0.66)
0.50
(0.31-0.81)
0.54
(0.34-0.86)
   - Radio- and chemo- and hormonal therapy 0.22
(0.08-0.63)
0.29
(0.12-0.67)
0.31
(0.13-0.72)
Number of prior events
(as a quantitative variable)
- 1.97
(1.62-2.41)
0.96
(0.67-1.41)
Type of prior events:    
   - no previous event (ref) - - 1
   - locoregional - - 4.25
(2.51-7.21)
   - contralateral breast cancer - - 1.44
(0.75-2.74)
   - distant metastases - - 3.94
(2.23-6.96)
   - 2nd primary other than breast    -
(-)
Variance of the random effect 1.42 (0.24) 0.38 (0.20) 0.35 (0.17)
Akaike Information Criterium (AIC) 1518.98 1494.10 1461.69
  1. * Analyses parametrically adjusted for the characteristics mentioned and non-parametrically adjusted for age