Effect of low dose metronomic cyclophosphamide therapy on vascular mural cell recruitment. A) Dual immunofluorescent staining for vascular alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA; red) and CD31 (green) showing blood vessels positive (chevrons) and negative (arrows) for this mural cell marker. Scale bar = 50 μm. B) CTX treated SW480 xenograft tumors had significantly increased proportion of α-SMA positive blood vessels compared to control (*p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between CTX and control WM239 tumors. The ratio between the mural cell marker protein desmin and pan endothelial marker CD31 was assessed by western blotting of whole tumor lysates (C) LDM CTX treatment resulted in increased desmin content realtive to CD31 for SW480 but not WM239 xenografts.