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Table 1 Relationships between p-Smad2 and clinicopathological features in 135 gastric cancer cases.

From: Phosphorylated Smad2 in Advanced Stage Gastric Carcinoma

Parameter P-Smad2 p-Value
   High (n = 63) Low (n = 72)  
Gender     
  Male 39 (41.9%) 54 (58.1%) N.S.
  Female 24 (57.1%) 18 (42.9%)  
Morphologic feature+     
  Type 1 6 (37.5%) 10 (62.5%) 0.025
  Type 2 14 (35.0%) 26 (65.0%)  
  Type 3 17 (45.9%) 20 (54.1%)  
  Type 4 26 (61.9%) 16 (38.1%)  
T stage     
  2 7 (25.9%) 20 (74.1%) 0.031
  3 52 (50.0%) 52 (50.0%)  
  4 4 (100.0%) 0 (0.00%)  
Differentiation     
  Intestinal-type 15 (31.2%) 33 (68.8%) 0.011
  Diffuse-type 48 (55.2%) 39 (44.8%)  
Lymph node metastasis+
(Japanese classification)
N0 and N1 34 (40.5%) 50 (59.5%) 0.047
  N2 and N3 29 (56.9%) 22 (43.1%)  
Lymph node metastasis++
(UICC classification)
N0 and N1 31 (36.9%) 53 (63.1%) 0.004
  N2 and N3 32 (62.7%) 19 (37.3%)  
Hepatic metastasis     
  Negative 62 (47.0%) 70 (53.0%) N.S.
  Positive 1 (33.3%) 2 (66.7%)  
Peritoneal metastasis     
  Negative 48 (42.1%) 66 (57.9%) 0.017
  Positive 15 (71.4%) 6 (28.6%)  
Peritoneal cytology+++     
  Negative 36 (40.4%) 53 (59.6%) 0.026
  Positive 22 (64.7%) 12 (35.3%)  
Lymphatic invasion     
  Ly0 and ly1 26 (40.6%) 38 (59.4%) N.S.
  Ly2 and ly3 37 (52.1%) 34 (47.9%)  
Venous invasion     
  Negative 50 (45.5%) 60 (54.5%) N.S.
  Positive 13 (52.0%) 12 (48.0%)  
Clinical stage     
  I 2 (22.2%) 7 (77.8%) 0.022
  II 15 (39.5%) 23 (60.5%)  
  III 18 (40.0%) 27 (60.0%)  
  IV 28 (68.7%) 15 (31.3%)  
  1. +, Classification according to the General Rules for Gastric Cancer Study of the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer [13]. Type 1 is defined as a polypoid tumor; type 2 as polypoid tumor with ulceration and with sharply demarcated margins; type 3 as ulcerated carcinoma with cancer infiltration into the surrounding wall; type 4 as diffusely infiltrating flat carcinoma in which ulceration is usually not a marked feature.
  2. ++, Nodal stage was assessed by the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) tumor node metastasis (TNM) classification [16] and by classification according to the general rules for gastric cancer study of the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer. In the TNM classification, nodal stage was classified according to the number of involved regional LNs as follows: pN0, no LN spread; pN1, 1 to 6 diseased LNs; pN2, 7 to 15; and pN3, more than 15. In the Japanese classification, nodal stage was classified according to the extent of positive LN into n0, n1, n2, and n3 and is considered to reflect the anatomic pathway of lymphatic spread. n1 is defined as proximate regional LN disease, and n2 or n3 are defined as distant.
  3. +++, In 12 cases, peritoneal cytology was not performed (Total 123 cases).