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Table 1 Characteristics of Hispanic women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer (n = 37,695) by nativity, California, 1988-2005.

From: The influence of nativity and neighborhoods on breast cancer stage at diagnosis and survival among California Hispanic women

Characteristics US-born Hispanics (N = 18,330) Foreign-born Hispanics (N = 19,365)  
  Case No. (%) Case No. (%) p-value
Age groups      
   <40 years 2,264 (12.4) 2,545 (13.1)  
   40-49 years 4,455 (24.3) 5,130 (26.5)  
   50-59 years 4,358 (23.8) 4,567 (23.6)  
   60-69 years 3,807 (20.8) 3,569 (18.4)  
   70+ years 3,446 (18.8) 3,554 (18.4) p < 0.01
Stage at diagnosis      
   Local 9,884 (53.9) 9,306 (48.1)  
   Regional 6,335 (34.6) 7,229 (37.3)  
   Distant 815 (4.5) 851 (4.4)  
   Missing 1,296 (7.1) 1,979 (10.2) p < 0.01
Histology      
   Ductal 12,906 (70.4) 13,333 (68.9)  
   Lobular 1,166 (6.4) 1,051 (5.4)  
   Mixed/Other 4,258 (23.2) 4,981 (25.7) p < 0.01
Estrogen receptor (ER) status      
   Positive 8,972 (49.0) 8,649 (44.7)  
   Negative 3,551 (19.4) 3,822 (19.7)  
   Other 5,807 (31.7) 6,894 (35.6) p < 0.01
Grade      
   Grade I 2,313 (12.6) 1,996 (10.3)  
   Grade II 5,737 (31.3) 5,795 (29.9)  
   Grade III 6,273 (34.2) 7,237 (37.4)  
   Grade IV 473 (2.6) 536 (2.8)  
   Unknown 3,534 (19.3) 3,801 (19.6) p < 0.01
Chemotherapy treatment      
   Yes 8,093 (44.2) 8,862 (45.8)  
   No 9,821 (53.6) 9,845 (50.8)  
   Missing 416 (2.3) 658 (3.4) p < 0.01
Radiation treatment      
   Yes 7,686 (41.9) 7,323 (37.8)  
   No 10,643 (58.1) 12,042 (62.2)  
   Missing 1 (<0.1) 0 (0) p < 0.01
Surgery      
   Yes 17,421 (95.0) 18,079 (93.4)  
   No 891 (4.9) 1,268 (6.6)  
   Missing 18 (0.1) 18 (0.1) p < 0.01
Hormone therapy treatment      
   Yes 5,461 (29.8) 5,116 (26.4)  
   No 12,368 (67.5) 13,609 (70.3)  
   Missing 501 (2.7) 640 (3.3) p < 0.01
Number of lymph nodes      
   0 9,514 (51.9) 8,800 (45.4)  
   1-3 3,754 (20.5) 3,910 (20.2)  
   ≥4 2,592 (14.1) 3,261 (16.8)  
   Missing 2,470 (13.5) 3,394 (17.5) p < 0.01
Tumor size (mm)      
   ≤20 mm 1,601 (8.7) 1,814 (9.4)  
   >20 mm 16,727 (91.3) 17,544 (90.6)  
   Missing 2 (<0.1) 7 (<0.1) p = 0.03
Neighborhood SES* (quintiles)      
   1 (lowest) 4,030 (22.0) 6,971 (36.0)  
   2 4,266 (23.3) 4,727 (24.4)  
   3 4,092 (22.3) 3,389 (17.5)  
   4 3,429 (18.7) 2,465 (12.7)  
   5 (highest) 2,513 (13.7) 1,813 (9.4) p < 0.01
Hispanic enclave (quintiles)      
   1 (lowest) 2,080 (11.4) 859 (4.4)  
   2 3,035 (16.6) 1,796 (9.3)  
   3 3,786 (20.7) 2,722 (14.1)  
   4 4,668 (25.5) 4,732 (24.4)  
   5 (highest) 4,761 (26.0) 9,256 (47.8) p < 0.01
Combined neighborhood SES* and Hispanic enclave**      
   High SES, low enclave 7,255 (39.6) 4,525 (23.4)  
   High SES, high enclave 2,779 (15.2) 3,142 (16.2)  
   Low SES, low enclave 1,646 (9.0) 852 (4.4)  
   Low SES, high enclave 6,650 (36.3) 10,846 (56.0) p < 0.01
Vital Status      
   Dead 5,976 (32.6) 6,018 (31.1)  
   Alive 12,345 (67.4) 13,356 (68.9) p < 0.01
Cause of death (N = 11,994)      
   Breast cancer 3,464 (58.0) 3,654 (60.7)  
   Other cancer 528 (8.8) 419 (7.0)  
   Circulatory disease 938 (15.7) 782 (13.0)  
   Other causes 882 (14.8) 638 (10.6)  
   Unknown cause 164 (2.7) 525 (8.7) p < 0.01
  1. *Socioeconomic status
  2. **Low SES includes quintiles 1 and 2; high SES includes quintiles 3, 4 and 5; low enclave includes quintiles 1 and 2; high enclave includes quintiles 3, 4 and 5.