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Table 1 Clinicopathological characteristics of the whole cohort and four subgroups of patients with pT3/4N0M0 HCC *

From: Application of tumor-node-metastasis staging 2002 version in locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: is it predictive of surgical outcome?

Characteristics Whole cohort (n = 298) Major vascular invasion (n = 21) Multiple tumors more than 5 cm (n = 108) Invasion of adjacent organs (n = 32) Perforation of visceral peritoneum (n = 57)
Gender, Male:Female 276:22 20:1 100:8 30:2 51:6
Age (years) 48.0 ± 10.7 48.4 ± 12.5 46.1 ± 10.6 49.0 ± 8.2 45.6 ± 10.1
HBsAg positive 257 (86.2%) 17(81.0%) 85(78.7%) 26(81.3%) 51(89.5%)
HCVAb positive 18 (6.0%) 1(4.8%) 3(2.8%) 2(6.3%) 3(5.3%)
ALB (g/L) 42.7 ± 5.4 40.0 ± 4.8 43.1 ± 5.1 39.7 ± 5.7 43.4 ± 5.2
TBIL (μmol/L) 17.0 ± 9.5 18.0 ± 10.9 16.4 ± 9.6 17.6 ± 10.1 16.6 ± 5.9
PT (s) 13.6 ± 1.8 13.9 ± 2.5 13.6 ± 1.9 14.2 ± 2.1 13.0 ± 1.9
ICGR15 (%) 11.1 ± 6.4 12.9 ± 6.8 10.0 ± 5.6 10.3 ± 4.3 8.2 ± 2.8
AFP (μg/L) median (range) 488 (1-332318) 2839(76-46135) 487(1-332318) 151.5(2-32318) 817(2-266360)
Child-Pugh A 260 (87.6%) 19(90.5%) 97(89.8%) 27(84.4%) 48(84.2%)
MELD score median (range) 7 (6-14) 7(6-9) 7(6-14) 7(6-11) 7(6-10)
Cirrhosis 241 (80.9%) 17(80.9%) 89(82.4%) 26(81.3%) 45(78.9%)
Tumor size (cm) 9.7 ± 3.8 8.6 ± 2.70 9.1 ± 3.0 10.9 ± 3.5 8.8 ± 2.8
Tumor encapsulation 87 (29.2%) 5(23.8%) 36(33.3%) 8(25.0%) 14(24.6%)
Microvascular invasion 187 (62.8%) 21(100%) 51(47.2%) 20(62.5%) 32(56.1%)
Resection margin > 0 mm 110 (36.9%) 6(28.6%) 39(36.1%) 12(37.5%) 19(33.3%)
Major hepatic resection 217 (72.8%) 16(76.2%) 81(75%) 21(65.6%) 38(66.7%)
Blood loss, liters 0.8 ± 0.5 0.9 ± 0.4 0.8 ± 0.6 0.7 ± 0.4 0.8 ± 0.7
Blood transfusion 157 (52.7%) 14(66.7%) 57(53.3%) 22(68.7%) 36(63.2%)
Previous TACE 16 (5.4%) 1(3.1%) 5(4.6%) 2(6.3%) 2(3.5%)
Postoperative adjuvant TACE 76 (25.5%) 6(28.6%) 32(33.3%) 7(21.9%) 9(15.8%)
  1. Unless otherwise stated, continuous data are expressed as mean ± SD; other figures indicate number of patients.
  2. HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen; HCVAb, hepatitis C virus antibody; ALB, albumin; TBIL, total bilirubin; PT, prothrombin time; ICGR15, indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes; AFP, α-fetoprotein; MELD, model for end-stage liver disease; TACE, transarterial chemoembolization.
  3. * The four subgroups were selected patients in whom the four pathologic features present singularly.
  4. Serum AFP levels of patients with major vascular invasion were significantly higher than those of the other three subgroups (P < 0.05).
  5. The proportion of patients with microvascular invasion was significantly higher in patients with major vascular invasion than in the other three subgroups (P < 0.05).
  6. There were no significant differences between any groups in any other parameters.