Cinnamon extract treatment down-regulates the levels of NFκB and AP1 and their target genes. (A) After treatment of cinnamon extract for indicated time periods, the levels of NFκB and AP1 in total cell lysates (left) and nucleus extracts (right) were compared by immunoblotting. The effect of cinnamon extract on the activity NFκB (B) and AP1 (C) was measured by reporter assay. B16F10 cells were transfected with AP1- or NFκB-dependent reporter construct and then stimulated with PMA and ionomycin (P+I) for 4 hours in the absence or presence of cinnamon extract (CE). Gene expression (D) and protein (E) levels of anti-apoptotic genes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR or immunoblotting, respectively. Data are representative of three independent experiments with similar results. One (*), two (**) or three asterisks (***) indicate p < 0.05, p < 0.005 or p < 0.001, respectively.