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Table 5 Differences in mammographic density measures across categories of various SES variables

From: Mammographic density and markers of socioeconomic status: a cross-sectional study

SES Variable Percent density1 P-value2 Dense area3 P-value2 Lucent area4 P-value2
Highest education level       
Minimally-adjusted5       
   Higher 0   0   0  
   Further -6.3 (-11.3,-0.8) 0.01 -6.2 (-11.8,0.0) 0.09 15.8 (0.0,32.8) 0.005
   None/GCSE -6.3 (-10.5,-1.6)   -4.7 (-9.6,0.7)   19.3 (5.6,33.8)  
+ BMI-adjusted6       
   Higher 0   0   0  
   Further -4.3 (-8.8,0.6) 0.06 -4.8 (-10.3,1.3) 0.25 8.2 (-3.7,20.8) 0.04
   None/GCSE -4.0 (-7.9,0.1)   -3.1 (-8.0,2.2)   10.7 (0.6,21.5)  
Fully-adjusted7       
   Higher 0   0   0  
   Further -4.1 (-8.8,1.1) 0.09 -4.2 (-10.1,2.3) 0.29 8.1 (-4.3,21.4) 0.07
   None/GCSE -4.0 (-8.3,0.7)   -3.2 (-8.6,2.8)   10.7 (-0.8,22.9)  
Townsend score 8       
Minimally-adjusted5       
   Q5 (affluent) 0   0   0  
   Q4 -1.4 (-6.0,3.8)   -0.9 (-6.2,4.7)   4.3 (-8.0,17.5)  
   Q3 -5.1 (-9.8,0.2) 0.01 -4.4 (-9.8,1.4) 0.18 12.2 (-1.7,27.1) <0.001
   Q2 -6.0 (-11.5,0.3)   -3.0 (-9.6,4.3)   23.1 (5.4,42.2)  
   Q1 (deprived) -6.6 (-12.9,0.7)   -3.3 (-10.8,5.2)   28.0 (7.3,50.7)  
+ BMI-adjusted6       
   Q5 (affluent) 0   0   0  
   Q4 -0.2 (-4.2,4.2)   -0.1 (-5.1,5.3)   0.9 (-8.4,10.6)  
   Q3 -2.0 (-6.2,2.6) 0.92 -2.2 (-7.4,3.5) 0.81 2.1 (-8.0,12.7) 0.47
   Q2 0.1 (-5.2,6.0)   1.3 (-5.4,8.7)   3.2 (-9.1,16.5)  
   Q1 (deprived) 0.6 (-5.6,7.5)   1.8 (-6.0,10.5)   4.4 (-10.0,19.9)  
Fully-adjusted7       
   Q5 (affluent) 0   0   0  
   Q4 0.1 (-4.0, 4.6)   0.2 (-4.9,5.6)   0.2 (-9.1,10.1)  
   Q3 -1.2 (-5.7, 3.5) 0.76 -1.2 (-6.6,4.8) 0.53 1.3 (-9.1,12.3) 0.61
   Q2 0.8 (-4.7, 6.8)   2.1 (-4.8,9.7)   2.4 (-10.2,15.9)  
   Q1 (deprived) 1.8 (-4.7, 9.1)   3.1 (-5.1,12.3)   3.2 (-11.6,19.3)  
Urban/Rural indicator       
Minimally-adjusted5       
   Rural (<10,000 people) 0 0.34 0 0.66 0 0.17
   Urban (≥ 10,000 people) -2.8 (-8.0, 3.0)   -1.4 (-7.3,5.1)   10.4 (-4.3,26.2)  
+ BMI-adjusted6       
   Rural (<10,000 people) 0 0.98 0 0.92 0 0.71
   Urban (≥ 10,000 people) -0.1 (-4.7, 4.9)   0.3 (-5.5,6.6)   2.1 (-8.5,13.4)  
Fully-adjusted7       
   Rural (<10,000 people) 0 0.81 0 0.69 0 0.81
   Urban (≥ 10,000 people) 0.6 (-4.2,5.8)   1.3 (-4.7,7.8)   1.4 (-9.5,13.0)  
  1. 1 For a reference value of 30%
  2. 2 P-value for linear trend in mammographic values across categories of a given SES variable
  3. 3 For a reference value of 35 cm2
  4. 4 For a reference value of 90 cm2
  5. 5 Adjusted for age at mammography and mammographic view
  6. 6 Additionally adjusted for BMI
  7. 7 Further adjusted for height, smoking status, age at first full-term pregnancy and number of full-term pregnancies (see Statistical Methods)
  8. 8 Q1 to Q5 refer to the England and Wales general population fifths of Townsend score at LSOA level