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Table 1 Odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lack of Pap-smear in the last year by selected characteristics

From: Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

  Pap-smear in the last year     
  Yes No OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI)
  n (%) n (%)     
Total 607 (60.6) 395 (39.4)     
Age at interview (years)         
   ≥45 145 (58.7) 102 (41.3) 1   1  
   40-44 227 (65.6) 119 (34.4) 0.8 (0.5-1.1) 0.8 (0.5-1.1)
   35-39 131 (63.3) 76 (36.7) 0.8 (0.6-1.2) 0.8 (0.6-1.2)
   <35 104 (51.5) 98 (48.5) 1.4 (1.0-2.0) 1.2 (0.8-1.8)
Education level         
   High school/University 255 (63.1) 149 (36.9) 1   1  
   Middle school/Primary 241 (55.9) 190 (44.1) 1.3 (1.0-1.7) 1.3 (1.0-1.7)
Area of birth         
   Italy 495 (62.1) 302 (37.9) 1   1  
   Abroad 112 (54.6) 93 (45.4) 1.2 (0.8-1.7) 1.1 (0.8-1.6)
Central-Eastern Europe§ 17 (42.5) 23 (57.5) 1.8 (0.9-3.6) 1.7 (0.8-3.3)
Africa 56 (53.3) 49 (46.7) 1.3 (0.8-2.0) 1.1 (0.7-1.9)
Other countries 39 (65.0) 21 (35.0) 0.8 (0.5-1.5) 0.9 (0.5-1.5)
Mode of HIV acquisition         
   Sexual 336 (62.1) 205 (37.9) 1   1  
   Injecting drug use 164 (61.0) 105 (39.0) 1.2 (0.9-1.6) 1.1 (0.8-1.6)
   Other/Unknown 107 (55.7) 85 (44.3) 1.2 (0.8-1.6) 1.1 (0.7-1.5)
Time since first HIV+ test (years)         
   ≥10 357 (63.2) 208 (36.8) 1   1  
   3-9 169 (62.1) 103 (37.9) 0.9 (0.7-1.3) 0.9 (0.7-1.3)
   ≤2 78 (48.4) 83 (51.6) 1.4 (1.0-2.1) 1.3 (0.9-2.0)
Previous AIDS diagnosis         
   No 504 (61.3) 318 (38.7) 1   1  
   Yes 103 (57.2) 77 (42.8) 1.2 (0.9-1.7) 1.2 (0.9-1.7)
CD4 count at last visit (cells/μl)         
   ≥500 284 (63.5) 163 (36.5) 1   1  
   200-499 271 (58.8) 190 (41.2) 1.2 (0.9-1.6) 1.2 (0.9-1.5)
   <200 45 (51.7) 42 (48.3) 1.6 (1.0-2.5) 1.6 (1.0-2.6)
Screening advice received from         
   Infectivologist 244 (66.8) 121 (33.2) 1   1  
   Gynecologist 122 (77.2) 36 (22.8) 0.6 (0.4-0.9) 0.6 (0.4-1.0)
   Screening program 61 (59.8) 41 (40.2) 1.4 (0.9-2.2) 1.3 (0.8-2.1)
   Do not remember 180 (47.7) 197 (52.3) 2.1 (1.5-2.8) 2.2 (1.6-2.9)
Hospitalized for HIV         
   No 382 (61.8) 236 (38.2) 1   1  
   Yes 225 (58.6) 159 (41.4) 1.2 (0.9-1.5) 1.2 (0.9-1.5)
Abnormal Pap-smear #         
   Never 366 (61.7) 227 (38.3) 1   1  
   Ever 235 (77.0) 70 (23.0) 0.5 (0.3-0.6) 0.4 (0.3-0.6)
  1. Emilia-Romagna region, Italy, 2006-2007*
  2. * Figures may not add up to totals because of missing values. Estimates from the logistic regression models adjusted for age and study centre; Adjusted as plus terms for area of birth, mode of HIV acquisition, and time since first HIV-positive test. §Included Albania, Bulgaria, Former-Yugoslavia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Former-USSR, Czech Republic and Slovakia, Cyprus; #Women reporting no previous Pap-smear were excluded