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Table 4 Associations between intake of water-soluble antioxidants and survival following glioma diagnosis, stratified by histology group

From: Daily intake of antioxidants in relation to survival among adult patients diagnosed with malignant glioma

Nutrient (unit) Tertiles All or self-report (SR) only Grade II Grade III Grade IV
      (143 cases, 72 deaths) (130 cases, 103 deaths) (475 cases, 473 deaths)
  Lower limit   Upper limit   HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI
Vitamin C (mg)        
T1: 4.5 to 84.1 ALL 1   1   1  
T2: 84.1 to 149.6   1.33 (0.72-2.48) 0.71 (0.40-1.27) 1.23 (0.96-1.57)
T3: 149.6 to 869.6   0.52 (0.23-1.20) 1.07 (0.56-2.03) .44* (1.09-1.91)
T1: 4.5 to 84.1 SR 1   1   1  
T2: 84.1 to 149.6   1.21 (0.63-2.34) 1.04 (0.50-2.16) 1.2 (0.84-1.72)
T3: 149.6 to 869.6   0.56 (0.21-1.47) 1.18 (0.51-2.75) 1.28 (0.87-1.90)
Formononetin (mcg)        
T1: 0.1 to 9.3 ALL 1   1   1  
T2: 9.4 to 23.0   1.08 (0.55-2.15) 47* (0.25-0.89) .27* (1.00-1.61)
T3: 23.1 to 155.6   1.08 (0.46-2.52) 0.79 (0.43-1.43) 1.04 (0.79-1.37)
T1: 0.1 to 9.3 SR 1   1   1  
T2: 9.4 to 23.0   1.18 (0.57-2.42) 0.67 (0.29-1.53) 1.16 (0.82-1.63)
T3: 23.1 to 155.6   0.96 (0.41-2.29) 0.56 (0.27-1.14) 1.03 (0.71-1.49)
Genistein (mcg)        
T1: 8.1 to 141.3 ALL 1   1   1  
T2: 141.7 to 291.3   1.18 (0.57-2.43) 1.18 (0.66-2.12) 1.2 (0.92-1.56)
T3: 291.6 to 44265.2   1.05 (0.40-2.74) 1.25 (0.69-2.27) 1.35* (1.00-1.81)
T1: 8.1 to 141.3 SR 1   1   1  
T2: 141.7 to 291.3   0.93 (0.42-2.07) 1.53 (0.71-3.29) 1.02 (0.70-1.48)
T3: 291.6 to 44265.2   0.78 (0.29-2.15) 1.56 (0.65-3.74) 1.42 (0.96-2.10)
Daidzein (mcg)        
T1: 10.1 to 269.0 ALL 1   1   1  
T2: 270.1 to 440.6   1.77 (0.96-3.26) 0.71 (0.40-1.28) 1.06 (0.83-1.36)
T3: 440.6 to 36886.6   1.7 (0.70-4.14) 1.01 (0.55-1.85) 1.13 (0.86-1.49)
T1: 10.1 to 269.0 SR 1   1   1  
T2: 270.1 to 440.6   1.54 (0.75-3.17) 1.05 (0.49-2.25) 1.2 (0.84-1.72)
T3: 440.6 to 36886.6   1.21 (0.46-3.20) 0.7 (0.29-1.66) 1.08 (0.75-1.57)
Biochanin A (mcg)        
T1: 0.0 to 15.4 ALL 1   1   1  
T2: 15.4 to 37.8   1.03 (0.53-2.01) 0.84 (0.47-1.51) 1.27 (0.99-1.62)
T3: 37.8 to 334.7   0.6 (0.28-1.30) 0.91 (0.45-1.88) 1.26 (0.97-1.64)
T1: 0.0 to 15.4 SR 1   1   1  
T2: 15.4 to 37.8   1.24 (0.62-2.49) 0.56 (0.26-1.20) 0.92 (0.64-1.33)
T3: 37.8 to 334.7   0.56 (0.24-1.32) 0.66 (0.27-1.57) 1.02 (0.70-1.50)
Calcium (mg)        
T1: 85.0 to 499.9 ALL 1   1   1  
T2: 501.6 to 807.7   1.23 (0.61-2.47) 0.7 (0.39-1.24) 1.06 (0.82-1.37)
T3: 808.1 to 2686.8   0.95 (0.35-2.53) 1.22 (0.59-2.55) 0.87 (0.64-1.19)
T1: 85.0 to 499.9 SR 1   1   1  
T2: 501.6 to 807.7   1.5 (0.70-3.24) 1.32 (0.65-2.67) 1.06 (0.74-1.52)
T3: 808.1 to 2686.8   1.56 (0.58-4.15) 2.27 (0.93-5.53) 0.81 (0.53-1.24)
Folate (mcg)        
T1: 56.5 to 297.0 ALL 1   1   1  
T2: 297.4 to 434.7   0.45* (0.20-0.99) 1.05 (0.62-1.78) 0.84 (0.65-1.09)
T3: 435.1 to 1530.0   0.35 (0.12-1.01) 0.59 (0.28-1.24) 1.08 (0.78-1.50)
T1: 56.5 to 297.0 SR 1   1   1  
T2: 297.4 to 434.7   0.49 (0.22-1.12) 1.29 (0.61-2.73) 0.82 (0.57-1.17)
T3: 435.1 to 1530.0   0.41 (0.13-1.29) 2.26 (0.77-6.60) 1.09 (0.68-1.74)
  1. adjusted for reporting status (all cases vs self reported cases only), age at diagnosis (<48,48-65,>65), treatment (radiation, chemo, surgery - yes/no), education (<12, 12, >12), marital status (yes/no), total calories (continuous), pack years (median=18.5), and age at first alcoholic drink (<18,18 - 20,>20).
  2. * p < 0.05