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Table 1 Descriptive Characteristics of Lung Cancer Cases and Hospital Controls.

From: Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with lung cancer risk among smokers: a case-control study

  Lung cancer cases (N = 948) Controls (N = 1743) P
  Means ± SD Means ± SD (t-test)
Age, yr 62.5 ± 10.1 62.2 ± 10.3 0.4322
Vegetables, servings/mo 71.5 ± 41.0 79.6 ± 43.9 <0.0001
Fruits, servings/mo 41.7 ± 32.7 47.8 ± 32.3 <0.0001
Meats, servings/mo 34.8 ± 24.4 30.3 ± 22.1 <0.0001
Cruciferous1, servings/mo 12.9 ± 13.7 15.7 ± 16.4 <0.0001
Raw cruciferous2, servings/mo 4.2 ± 5.9 5.7 ± 7.9 <0.0001
Cigarettes per day 29.3 ± 15.9 22.6 ± 14.8 <0.0001
Years of smoking 37.0 ± 14.4 27.1 ± 15.6 <0.0001
  Lung cancer cases Controls P
  Number % Number % 2 -test)
Education      
   < High school 361 38.1 427 24.5  
   > High school 587 61.9 1316 75.5 <0.0001
Year of Admission      
   1981-1989 514 54.2 1028 59.0  
   1990-1999 434 45.8 715 41.0 0.0171
Gender      
   Male 583 61.5 1036 59.4  
   Female 365 38.5 707 40.6 0.2971
Smoking Status      
   Never Smokers 51 5.4 100 5.7  
   Former Smokers 684 72.1 1269 72.8  
   Current Smokers 213 22.5 374 21.5 0.7930
  1. 1 Cruciferous vegetables = broccoli (raw and cooked), cabbage (raw and cooked), cauliflower (raw and cooked), Brussels sprouts, kale, turnip, collard, mustard greens.
  2. 2 Raw cruciferous vegetables = raw broccoli, raw cabbage, raw cauliflower.