Skip to main content

Table 2 Factors associated with breast cancer screening practice1 in univariate analysis (n = 2,583)

From: Factors associated with use of breast cancer screening services by women aged ≥ 40 years in Korea: The Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 (KNHANES III)

Socio-demographic factors   % univariate OR 95%CI
Age (years) 40-49 35.26 1.0(ref)   
  50-64 35.25 1 0.83 1.21
  65+ 16.36 0.36 0.28 0.46
Education No 14.69 1.0(ref)   
  Elementary school (≤ 6 years) 26.90 2.14 1.56 2.92
  Middle/high school (7-12 years) 35.17 3.15 2.34 4.23
  University/higher (≥ 13 years) 45.08 4.77 3.32 6.85
Household monthly income2 Lowest tertile (≤ US$650) 22.68 1.0(ref)   
  Middle tertile (US$650-1,345) 30.37 1.49 1.2 1.85
  Highest tertile (≥ US$1,345) 37.96 2.09 1.69 2.58
National health Insurance (NHI)/Medicaid NHI 30.6    
  Medicaid 27.74 0.87 0.61 1.25
Private health insurance No 20.57 1.0(ref)   
  Yes 36.16 2.19 1.81 2.64
Marital status3 With spouse 33.69 1.0(ref)   
  Without spouse 23.4 0.6 0.5 0.73
Residential area Urban 31.3 1.0(ref)   
  Rural 27.73 0.84 0.69 1.03
Health behavioral risk factors      
Alcohol Never 27.5 1.0(ref)   
  Less than once per month 33.96 1.36 1.11 1.66
  More than once per month 30.85 1.18 0.96 1.45
Lifetime smoker4 No 31.98 1.0(ref)   
  Yes 14.89 0.37 0.26 0.54
Physical activity of moderate intensity5 Never 27.34    
  More than once per week 36.44 1.52 1.26 1.84
  Everyday 32.03 1.25 0.96 1.63
Psychological and cognitive factors      
Stress Often 29.05 1.0(ref)   
  Rarely 31.2 1.11 0.93 1.32
Depression6 No 30.7 1.0(ref)   
  Yes 29.49 0.94 0.77 1.16
Attitude towards effectiveness of medical examination Effective 42.42 1.0(ref)   
  Not effective/not received medical exam. 11.28 0.17 0.14 0.22
Physical function and health status      
Self-reported health status Healthy 32.61 1.0(ref)   
  Fair 34.64 1.09 0.89 1.35
  Unhealthy 24.6 0.67 0.54 0.84
Number of chronic diseases7 0-3 31.73 1.0(ref)   
  4+ 28.64 0.86 0.73 1.02
Disabled8 No 30.55 1.0(ref)   
  Yes 26.97 0.84 0.52 1.35
Visual problem No 32.12 1.0(ref)   
  Yes 27.91 0.82 0.69 0.97
Hearing problem No 31.65 1.0(ref)   
  Yes 23.36 0.66 0.51 0.85
Walking problem No 32.63 1.0(ref)   
  Yes 23.93 0.65 0.53 0.8
Limitation in daily activities No 31.79 1.0(ref)   
  Yes 23.94 0.68 0.53 0.85
  1. 1 Subjects who had undergone a mammography or breast ultrasonography within the previous 2 years were considered as having received breast cancer screening as recommended by the KNCSP guidelines
  2. 2 To derive income per adult equivalent, we defined as household 'income/square root of person'
  3. 3 The term 'spouse' refers to an individual who is legally married or cohabiting, 'without spouse' refers to an individual who is single, divorced, or separated
  4. 4 'Lifetime smoker' included respondents who reported that they have smoked at least 100 cigarettes and still smoke
  5. 5 Moderate-intensity activitiesas were defined as lasting at least 10 minutes and increasing heart rate slightly compared with sedentary activities
  6. 6 Experience of depression was assessed by the question, "During the past 1 year, have you often been bothered by little interest or pleasure in doing things nearly every day for the past 2 weeks?"
  7. 7 Chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, lung disease, musculoskeletal disease, gastrointestinal disease, and anemia
  8. 8 Registered as a disabled person