Transformed phenotypes elicited by expression of Rac1
V12 or Cdc42
V12 in human fibroblasts. (a) MSU-1.1 fibroblasts expressing either GFP alone (MSU-1.1-GFP-VC), or GFP-tagged constitutively-activated proteins. (b) The indicated cell strains were grown in medium with reduced serum (0.5% SCS). Growth curves were plotted. Doubling time was calculated based on an equation derived from a best-fit exponential curve when cells were in log-phase growth. Error bars represent the SD of triplicate experiments. (c) The indicated cell strains were plated in 0.33% agarose and grown for three weeks. Each picture represents one representative field from each cell line. This experiment was completed in triplicate, each with similar results.