KIAA0101 (OEACT-1), an expressionally down-regulated and growth-inhibitory gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma
© Guo et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006
Received: 21 December 2005
Accepted: 29 April 2006
Published: 29 April 2006
Our previous cDNA array results indicated KIAA0101 as one of the differentially expressed genes in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as compared with non-cancerous liver. However, it is necessary to study its expression at protein level in HCC and its biological function for HCC cell growth.
Western blot and tissue array were performed to compare KIAA0101 protein expression level in paired human HCC and non-cancerous liver tissues from the same patients. Investigation of its subcellular localization was done by using dual fluorescence image examination and enriched mitochondrial protein Western blot analysis. The in vitro cell growth curve was used for examing the effect of over-expression of KIAA0101 in HCC cells. FACS was used to analyze the cell cycle pattern in KIAA0101 expression positive (+) and negative (-) cell populations isolated by the pMACSKKII system after KIAA0101 cDNA transfection.
Western blot showed KIAA0101 protein expression was down-regulated in HCC tissues as compared with their counterpart non-cancerous liver tissues in 25 out of 30 cases. Tissue array also demonstrated the same pattern in 161 paired samples. KIAA0101 was predominantly localized in mitochondria and partially in nuclei. KIAA0101 cDNA transfection could inhibit the HCC cell growth in vitro. In cell cycle analysis, it could arrest cells at the G1 to S phase transition.
KIAA0101 protein expression was down-regulated in HCC. This gene could inhibit the HCC cell growth in vitro and presumably by its blocking effect on cell cycle.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent and lethal cancer in Asia and Africa. The development of HCC is a multi-factor in etiology, multi-step and multi-gene involvement in carcinogenesis and progression. A broad spectrum of genes have been involved in HCC development related to their genetic or epigenetic alteration, including p53, p16, p21, p27, beta-catenin, PTEN and Rb etc. Recent studies on functional genomics of HCC have further revealed that a number of genes with novel sequences and unclarified functions were involved in HCC development or progression . Based on cDNA array, we found KIAA0101, now designated as OEACT-1, as one of the genes with differential expression in HCC. In recent years, several reports described that alteration of KIAA0101 expression occurred in several cancers including thyroid , non-small cell lung cancer , and colon cancer . This gene was possibly related to some mechanisms regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis [7, 9].
Since the alteration of KIAA0101 expression reported so far was based on mRNA transcription, we studied the KIAA0101 protein expression level in human HCC as compared with the matched non-cancerous liver tissues by using an antibody prepared in our laboratory, and further investigated its subcellular localization in HCC cells and its biological effect on HCC growth and cell cycle.
We found that KIAA0101 was remarkably down-regulated at protein level in HCC, and it was capable of inhibiting cell growth and blocking the transition from G1 to S phase in cell cycle.
Tissue samples and tissue array
The human liver cancer samples and matched adjacent liver tissues were collected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University (Hangzhou, PR China). The HCC cell lines were provided by our lab and cultured in standard conditions (10% fetal bovine serum, 5% CO2). Tissue array was prepared by our lab including 161 pairs of liver cancerous tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues, 13 liver cirrhosis tissues and 10 normal livers. All samples of collection were under consensus agreements, and were approved by the Ethical Review Committee of the World Health Organization Collaborating Center for research in Human Production.
KIAA0101 coding sequence was subcloned into the pEGFP plasmid and pET-32a prokaryotic expression vector (His tag) separately and sequenced for confirmation. The primers for pEGFP vector are 5-ggagatctaacatggtgcggactaaag-3 and 5-gggtcgaccattctttttcatcatttg-3; the primers for pET-32a are 5-ggggatccgcaacatggtg cggactaaag-3 and 5-ggctcgagttctttttcatcatttg-3. The sequence underlined is restriction site for subcloning. Then the pET-32a+0101 recombinant expression plasmid was transformed into competent BL21 cells. Following induction of BL21 cells with 0.4 mM IPTG at 37°C for 4 hours, then the whole cells were lysised by the suspersonic equipment. The supernatant including the cell whole proteins were flowed through the Ni-coated column and the His-KIAA0101 fusion proteins were bound. After three times wash of the column, the His-KIAA0101 fusion protein was obtained by the elution buffer and was used for rabbit polyclonal antibody production according to the standard procedure.
The liver tumor and non-tumor samples were lysised in T-PER tissue protein extraction reagent (PIERCE) containing proteinase inhibitor cocktail (Roche) in 4°C for 30 minutes. The debris was discarded and the supernatant including whole proteins were quantified by BCA kit (PIERCE) and subjected to 15% SDS-PAGE (40 ug). Next the proteins were transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane (Schleicher & Schuell BioScience) and this membrane was blocked by the 5% milk dissolved in PBST for an hour. After incubation with the fist antibody and second antibody sequencely, detection was performed by using an ECL system (PIERCE). The rabbit anti-KIAA0101 antibody was used (1:1000) and GFP antibody (1:1000). Anti-β-actin antibody (1:10000, Sigma) was used as internal control.
The tissue array plate was blocked with 3% BSA 37°C for 1 hour, then probed with KIAA0101 antibody (1:100) at 4°C in a humidified chamber for 12 hours, followed rinsed three times by PBS and incubated with secondary rabbit antibody for 1 hour at 37°C (1:1000). This antibody complex was visualized by 3, 30-diaminobenzidine (Zymed Laboratories Inc.). Sections were counterstained with hematoxylin for 5 min and mounted with Eukit (Calibrated Instrument). The result was observed under a light microscope, and a semi-quantitative score for intensity was given to the different samples: +++, ++, + and -.
Dual immuno-fluorescence and enriched mitochondrial protein Western blot
Cultured HCC cells were seeded on the cover slips and incubated for 12 hours. Then the cells were probated with IgG-purified anti-KIAA0101 primary antibody (1:100) for half an hour in 37°C, after three times wash by PBS, the cells were incubated with TRITC-conjugated goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody for an hour. Also the same cover slip were washed and antibody angnist cytochrome oxidase I was added at 1 mg/ml in block buffer, followed by FITC-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG at 15 mg/ml in block buffer. The cells were viewed by epi-fluorescence with Axioskop 2 universal microscope. Digital images were captured using a CCD camera and analysized by ISIS system.
For enriched mitochondrial protein Western blot, cells were rinsed twice with cold PBS and then lysed in radio-immune precipitation (RIPA) buffer for 15 min at 4°C. Cell lysates were clarified by centrifugation at 10,000 rpm for 10 min, and the supernatant was incubated with 1 ug anti-mitochondrial antibody (Neomarks) for overnight in 4°C. Then the immune complexes were precipitated by protein A/G-Sepharose beads and washed four times with RIPA buffer, followed separated by 15% SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and for the KIAA0101 Western blot.
Co-transfection and separation of transient expression cells
Transfection was performed by incubating cells with pcDNA3.1/A+0101 together with the pMACS KKII plasmid (5:1) (Miltenyi Biotec, Auburn, CA, USA). pMACS KKII plasmid could be provided for the magnetic isolation of transiently transfected mammalian cells. Briefly, 4*106 cells in 6-cm plate were incubated for 5 hours at 37°C with 5 ug of the plasmid pcDNA3.1/A+0101 and 1 ug of pMACS KKII magnetic plasmid in a total of 1 ml DMEM. The cells were then washed and incubated overnight in DMEM containing 10% FCS at 37°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere. 48 hours later, the cells were labeled by MACSselect KKII microbeads and selected by MACSselect KKII column according to the protocol recommended. At the same time, the co-transfection of pcDNA3.1/A with pMACS KKII plasmids into cells is performed as control.
Cell growth analysis
KIAA0101 transiently expression positively (+) cells isolated by the MACSselect KKII microbeads and negative cells were seeded into 96-well flat-bottom microtiter plates equally. Cells were cultured in DMEM containing 10% FBS. Each day, 10 ul of CKK-8 solution (Dojin, Osaka, Japan) were added to each well and incubated for 2 hrs at 37°C. Optical density was read at 450 nm in a microplate reader.
Cell cycle analysis
KIAA0101 transiently expression positively (+) cells isolated by the MACSselect KKII microbeads and negative cells were fixed in PBS/70% EtOH at -20°C overnight. On the following day, cells were washed in PBS, stained with propidium iodide (50 mg/ml) and RNAse (360 mg/ml) for 30 min at 37°C, then with just propidium iodide (50 mg/ml) in PBS for at least 1 h at 4°C. DNA content was quantified using a FACSCAN (Becton Dickson). This experiment was repeated three times.
Preparation of polyclonal antibody against KIAA0101 and test of its specificity
KIAA0101 protein was down-regulated in HCC
Localization of KIAA0101 in mitochondria
Cell growth and cell cycle analysis
KIAA0101 has been recently reported as a novel gene related to thyroid , non-small cell lung carcinoma and colon cancer[9, 10]. In these reports, the alteration of expression at mRNA level was documented, either up-regulated [7–9] or down-regulated  in cancers described. The data presented here is the first time to demonstrate the alteration of KIAA0101 expression at protein level in human HCC by using Western analysis of 30 paired human HCC and non-cancerous liver tissues. KIAA0101 down-regulated expression at protein level was observed in 25 HCC tissues (83%). Utilizing tissue array and immunohistochemical survey, it was also demonstrated that no (-) or very weak (+) signals were detected in 107 HCC tissues (T) of 161 paired HCC (T) and non-cancerous (NT) tissues (66.4%). These data demonstrated that KIAA0101 expression at the protein level was remarkably down-regulated in HCC based on both Western and tissue array analysis.
We have attempted to correlate the expression status of KIAA0101 with the clinic-pathological background and HBV infection. However, we have not obtained positive association between KIAA0101 expression and etiology-clinial state(see Additional file 2). It implicated that KIAA0101 might be presumably one of the genes essential for cell growth basic machinery which was less dependent on different etiological or differentiation status. However, the further correlation study should be necessary to survey in a much larger scale of case population.
For better understanding the possible biological effect of KIAA0101 relevant to the growth behavior of cells, we examined the effect of over-expression of KIAA0101 after transfection into two different cell lines using growth curve assays. Our data indicated an inhibiting effect on cell growth of both these HCC cell lines. These results seemed not apparently consistent with the previous reports in thyroid cancer and HEK293 cells. The KIAA0101 mRNA expression in thyroid cancer was up-regulated and knock down of its expression by siRNA could retard the cell growth , while the over-expression of KIAA0101 by cDNA transfection in HEK293 cells had no effect on cell growth on this immortalized human renal cells. Our data did demonstrate that KIAA0101 over-expression could retard the cell growth of human HCC cells. These data were further supported by the results of cell cycle analysis which indicated the arrest at G1/S transition in KIAA0101 over-expressed cells. The inconsistency between our data and those from other laboratories might be attributed to different types of cancers or cells used for studies. It is probable that KIAA0101 might have different expression pattern in various types of cancers. Also the possibility that KIAA0101 may play various biological roles in different types of normal and cancer cells could not be excluded. Moreover, the discrepancy of data between level of mRNA and protein expression in the same tissue has been reported. In chen's report, they compared the level of mRNA with protein expression among 165 proteins. A subset of proteins demonstrated a negative correlation with the mRNA expression value. Thus the possibility that a negative correlation existed between KIAA0101 mRNA with protein level could not be excluded. It may also interpret, at least in part, the controversial data about mRNA and protein expression of KIAA0101 genes from different laboratories.
In our observation, the KIAA0101 gene product was predominantly localized in mitochondria of human HCC cells, but the minor portion was found in nuclei. A recent report by Simpson F etal has described that KIAA0101 was predominantly found in mitochondria of human renal HEK293 cells, but it could translocate into nuclei after UV exposure. It was found that KIAA0101 could bind to PCNA and a putative tumor suppressor. Therefore, the KIAA0101 may have a complex feature in its signal pathway and further studies of KIAA0101 are needed to explore its signal pathway in human HCC cells.
Taken together, our findings may put some insight on further elucidation of KIAA0101 in regulatory mechanism of cell growth and its relevance to HCC development and progression.
This is the first report to demonstrate the down-regulation of KIAA0101 at protein level in human HCC and its over-expression could inhibit the human HCC cell growth.
flow-asisted cell sorting
in situ hybridization
magnetic activated cell sorting.
- Li D, Cao Y, He L, Wang NJ, Gu JR: Aberrations of p53 gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma from China. Carcinogenesis. 1993, 14 (2): 169-173.View ArticlePubMed
- Qin LF, Ng IO, Fan ST, Ng M: P21/WAF1, P53 and PCNA expression and P53 mutation status in hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 1998, 79 (4): 424-428. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19980821)79:4<424::AID-IJC19>3.0.CO;2-4.View ArticlePubMed
- Tannapfel A, Grund D, Katalinic A, Uhlmann D, Kockerling F, Haugwitz U, Wasner M, Hauss J, Engeland K, Wittekind C: Decreased expression of p27 protein is associated with advanced tumor stage in hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2000, 89 (4): 350-355. 10.1002/1097-0215(20000720)89:4<350::AID-IJC6>3.0.CO;2-3.View ArticlePubMed
- Wong CM, Fan ST, Ng IO: β-catenin mutation and overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer. 2001, 92 (1): 136-145. 10.1002/1097-0142(20010701)92:1<136::AID-CNCR1301>3.0.CO;2-R.View ArticlePubMed
- Yao YJ, Ping XL, Zhang H, Chen FF, Lee PK, Ahsan H, Chen CJ, Lee PH, Peacocke M, Santella RM, Tsou HC: PTEN/MMAC1 mutations in hepatocellular carcinomas. Oncogene. 1999, 18 (20): 3181-3185. 10.1038/sj.onc.1202659.View ArticlePubMed
- Xu Liang, Hui Lijian, Wang Shaohui, Gong Jialei, Jin Ying, Wang Yanping, Ji Yuan, Wu Xin, Han Zheguang, Hu Gengxi: Expression Profiling Suggested a Regulatory Role of Liver-enriched Transcription Factors in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma1. Cancer Res. 2001, 61 (7): 3176-3181.PubMed
- Mizutani K, Onda M, Asaka S, Akaishi J, Miyamoto S, Yoshida A, Nagahama M, Ito K, Emi M: Overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma-1 (OEATC-1) as a novel gene responsible for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Cancer. 2005, 103 (9): 1785-90. 10.1002/cncr.20988.View ArticlePubMed
- Petroziello Joseph, Yamane Andrew, Westendorf Lori, Thompson Melissa, McDonagh Charlotte, Cerveny Charles, Law Che-Leung, Wah Alan, Paul Carter: Suppression subtractive hybridization and expression profiling identifies a unique set of genes over-expressed in non-small-cell lung cancer. Oncogene. 2004, 23 (46): 7734-7745. 10.1038/sj.onc.1207921.View ArticlePubMed
- Simpson F, Lammerts van Bueren K, Butterfield N, Bennetts JS, Bowles J, Adolphe C, Simms LA, Young J, Walsh MD, Leggett B, Fowles LF, Wicking C: The PCNA-associated factor KIAA0101/p15(PAF) binds the potential tumor suppressor product p33ING1b. Exp Cell Res. 2006, 312 (1): 73-85. 10.1016/j.yexcr.2005.09.020.View ArticlePubMed
- Notterman DA, Alon U, Sierk AJ, Levine AJ: transcriptional gene expression profiles of colorectal adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and normal tissue examined by oligonucleotide arrays. Cancer Res. 2001, 61 (7): 3124-3130.PubMed
- Chen G, Gharib TG, Huang CC, Tylors JMG, Misek DE, Kardia SLR, Giordano TJ, Iannettoni MD, Orringer MB, Hanash SM, Beer DG: discordant protein and mRNA expression in lung adenocarcinaomas. Molecular & cellular Proteomics. 2002, 1: 304-313. 10.1074/mcp.M200008-MCP200.View Article
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/6/109/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.