Decreased expression of long noncoding RNA GAS5 indicates a poor prognosis and promotes cell proliferation in gastric cancer
- Ming Sun†1,
- Fei-yan Jin†1,
- Rui Xia†1,
- Rong Kong1,
- Jin-hai Li2,
- Tong-peng Xu3,
- Yan-wen Liu1,
- Er-bao Zhang1,
- Xiang-hua Liu1Email author and
- Wei De1Email author
© Sun et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 13 December 2013
Accepted: 2 May 2014
Published: 6 May 2014
Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death and remains a major clinical challenge due to poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged recently as major players in tumor biology and may be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and potential therapeutic targets. Although downregulation of lncRNA GAS5 (Growth Arrest-Specific Transcript) in several cancers has been studied, its role in gastric cancer remains unknown. Our studies were designed to investigate the expression, biological role and clinical significance of GAS5 in gastric cancer.
Expression of GAS5 was analyzed in 89 gastric cancer tissues and five gastric cancer cell lines by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Over-expression and RNA interference (RNAi) approaches were used to investigate the biological functions of GAS5. The effect of GAS5 on proliferation was evaluated by MTT and colony formation assays, and cell apoptosis was evaluated by hochest stainning. Gastric cancer cells transfected with pCDNA3.1 -GAS5 were injected into nude mice to study the effect of GAS5 on tumorigenesis in vivo. Protein levels of GAS5 targets were determined by western blot analysis. Differences between groups were tested for significance using Student’s t-test (two-tailed).
We found that GAS5 expression was markedly downregulated in gastric cancer tissues, and associated with larger tumor size and advanced pathologic stage. Patients with low GAS5 expression level had poorer disease-free survival (DFS; P = 0.001) and overall survival (OS; P < 0.001) than those with high GAS5 expression. Further multivariable Cox regression analysis suggested that decreased GAS5 was an independent prognostic indicator for this disease (P = 0.006, HR = 0.412; 95%CI = 2.218–0.766). Moreover, ectopic expression of GAS5 was demonstrated to decrease gastric cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, while downregulation of endogenous GAS5 could promote cell proliferation. Finally, we found that GAS5 could influence gastric cancer cells proliferation, partly via regulating E2F1 and P21 expression.
Our study presents that GAS5 is significantly downregulated in gastric cancer tissues and may represent a new marker of poor prognosis and a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer intervention.
KeywordsGastric cancer Long noncoding RNA GAS5 Poor prognosis Cell proliferation
Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death, and is the most common gastrointestinal malignancy in East Asia, Eastern Europe, and parts of Central and South America . Although the majority of the patients at an early stage of gastric carcinoma can be cured by surgery, more than half of those at an advanced stage of the disease die of carcinoma recurrence, even after undergoing curative gastrectomy . Therefore, better understanding of the pathogenesis and identification of the molecular alterations is essential for the development of useful indicators that aid novel effective therapies for gastric cancer [3–5].
It is well known that protein-coding genes account for only 2% of the total genome, whereas the vast majority of the human genome can be transcripted into noncoding RNAs [6–9]. Among them are long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are more than 200 nt in length with limited or no protein-coding capacity. LncRNAs are often expressed in a disease-, tissue- or developmental stage-specific manner making these molecules attractive therapeutic targets and pointing toward specific functions for lncRNAs in development and diseases, in particular human cancer [10–13]. Multiple lines of evidence have revealed the contribution of lncRNAs as having oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles in tumorigenesis. A famous oncogenic lncRNA involved in tumor pathogenesis is known as HOTAIR (Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA), which has been consistently upregulated and identified as a strong prognosis marker of patient outcomes such as metastasis and patient survival in diverse human cancers. The studies also revealed that HOTAIR exerts its oncogenic functions via binding the PRC2 (polycomb repressive complex 2), which methylates histone H3 on K27 to promote gene repression [14–16]. A similar mode of action is executed by the lncRNA ANRIL (antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus), a novel tumor suppressor interacting with the PRC2 complex to block the activity of p15 INK4B , a well-known tumor suppressor gene. Moreover, the depletion of ANRIL increases the expression of p15 INK4B and inhibits cellular proliferation tumorigenesis . Maternally expressed gene 3 (meg3) also represents a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a MEG3 lncRNA, which expression is lost in an expanding list of primary human tumors, and re-expression of MEG3 could induce cell growth arrest and promote cell apoptosis partly via the activation of P53 . Nevertheless, the overall pathophysiological contributions of lncRNAs to gastric cancer remain largely unknown.
In our current study, which seeks to determine the clinical significance and functions of dysregulated lncRNAs in gastric carcinogenesis, we investigated lncRNA GAS5 (Growth Arrest-Specific Transcript 5), which was previously shown to be consistently downregulated and identified as a tumor-suppressor lncRNA in prostate cancer cells, renal cell carcinoma cells and breast cancer cells [19–21], though its functional significance has not yet been established. In this study, we demonstrated that decreased GAS5 expression was a characteristic molecular change in gastric cancer and investigated the effect of altered GAS5 level on the phenotypes of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Then, we analyzed the potential relationship between this lncRNA level in tumor tissues and existing clinicopathological features of gastric cancer, as well as clinical outcome. Our findings suggest that lncRNA GAS5 may represent a novel indicator of poor prognosis in gastric cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target for diagnosis and gene therapy.
Clinicopathological characteristics and GAS5 expression in 89 patient samples of gastric cancer
Number of cases (%)
Regional lymph nodes
Expression of GAS5
Cell lines and culture conditions
Five gastric cancer cell lines (SGC7901, BGC823, MGC803, MKN45, MKN28), and a normal gastric epithelium cell line (GES-1) were purchased from the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Shanghai, China). Cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 or DMEM (GIBCO-BRL) medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (10% FBS), 100 U/ml penicillin, and 100 mg/ml streptomycin in humidified air at 37°C with 5% CO2.
RNA extraction and qRT-PCR analyses
Total RNA was extracted from tissues or cultured cells using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). For qRT-PCR, RNA was reverse transcribed to cDNA by using a Reverse Transcription Kit (Takara, Dalian, China). Real-time PCR analyses were performed with Power SYBR Green (Takara, Dalian China). Results were normalized to the expression of GAPDH. The PCR primers for GAS5 or GAPDH were as follows: GAS5 sense, 5’- CTTCTGGGCTCAAGTGATCCT-3’ and reverse, 5’- TTGTGCCATGAGACTCC ATCAG-3’; GAPDH sense, 5’-GTCAACGGATTTGGTCTGTATT-3’ and reverse, 5’-AGTCTTCTGGGTGGCAGTGAT-3’. qRT-PCR and data collection were performed on ABI 7500. The relative expression of GAS5 was calculated and normalized using the 2-ΔΔCt method relative to GAPDH.
To generate a GAS5 expression vector, the entire sequence of human GAS5 (NR_002578.2, 651 bp) was synthesized and subcloned into pCDNA3.1 vector with incorporate external NheI and BamHI sites, respectively (Invitrogen, Shanghai, China).
Transfection of gastric cancer cells
All plasmid vectors (pCDNA3.1-GAS5 and empty vector) for transfection were extracted by DNA Midiprep kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). Gastric cells cultured in six-well plate were transfected with the pCDNA3.1-GAS5, empty vector, si-GAS5 or si-NC using Lipofectamine2000 (Invitrogen, Shanghai, China) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Cells were harvested after 48 hours for qRT-PCR and western blot analyses. siRNAs for the human GAS5 (1#: 5’-CUUGCCUGGACCAGCUUAAUU-3’; 2#: CACCAUUUCAACUU CCAG CUUUCUG;3#: UACCCAAGCAAGUCAUCCAUGGAUA) and the negative control siRNA (5’-UUCUCCGAACGUGUCACGUUU-3’) were purchased from Invitrogen (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA).
Cell proliferation assays
A cell proliferation assay was performed with MTT kit (Sigma, St. Louis, Mo) according to the manufacturer's instruction. Viable cells were counted by trypan blue staining. For the colony formation assay, cells were placed into 6-well plate and maintained in media containing 10% FBS for 2 weeks. Colonies were fixed with methanol and stained with 0.1% crystal violet (Sigma, St. Louis, Mo). Visible colonies were manually counted.
Hoechst staining assay
SGC-7901 and BGC-823 cells transfected with pCDNA3.1-GAS5 or empty vector were cultured in six-well cell culture plates, and Hoechst 33342 (Sigma, St Louis, MO, USA) was added to the culture medium; changes in nuclear morphology were detected by fluorescence microscopy using a filter for Hoechst 33342 (365 nm). For quantification of Hoechst 33342 staining, the percentage of Hoechst-positive nuclei per optical field (at least 50 fields) was counted.
Western blot assay and antibodies
Cells protein lysates were separated by 10% SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), transferred to 0.22 μm NC membranes (Sigma) and incubated with specific antibodies. ECL chromogenic substrate was used to visualize the bands and the intensity of the bands was quantified by densitometry (Quantity One software; Bio-Rad, CA, USA). GAPDH antibody was used as control, Anti-E2F1, cyclinD1, P21 and cleaved caspase-3 (1:1000) were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology, Inc (CST).
Tumor formation assay in a nude mouse model
4 weeks female athymic BALB/c nude mice were maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions and manipulated according to protocols approved by the Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experiments of the Nanjing medical University. SCG7901 cells transfected with pCDNA3.1-GAS5 or empty vector were harvested from six-well cell culture plates, washed with PBS, and resuspended at a concentration of 1 × 108 cells/mL. A volume of 100 μL of suspended cells was subcutaneously injected into a single side of the posterior flank of each mouse. The subcutaneous growth of tumor was examined every three days, and tumor volumes were calculated using the equation V = 0.5 × D × d2 (V, volume; D, longitudinal diameter; d, latitudinal diameter) . At 18 days post injection, the mice were sacrificed and tumor weights were measured and also used for further analysis. This study was carried out in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health.
Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software package (version 20.0, SPSS Inc). Statistical significance was tested by a Student’s t-test or a Chi-square test as appropriate. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test was used to compare the differences between patient groups.
Expression of GAS5 is downregulated in human gastric cancer tissues
The relationship between GAS5 expression and clinicopathological factors in patients with gastric cancer
Correlation between GAS5 expression and clinicopathological characteristics in patients with gastric cancer
High- GAS5 group, no. of cases
Low-GAS5 group, no. of cases
Regional lymph nodes
Association of GAS5 expression with patients’ survival
We further examined whether GAS5 expression level correlated with outcome of gastric cancer patients after gastrectomy. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) curves were plotted according to GAS5 expression level by the Kaplan–Meier analysis and log-rank test, respectively, and the results were presented in Figure 1C and D. Remarkably, patients with low GAS5 expression level had poorer disease-free survival (P = 0.001) and overall survival (P < 0.001). With regard to OS, the overall 3-year accumulative survival rates of patients with high GAS5 expression were 49%. For patients with low GAS5 expression, however, the rates were 30.9%. Low GAS5 expression indicated a shorter overall survival time of patients (median OS: 13 months) compared with high GAS5 expression (median OS: 31 months). Moreover, 3 years of disease-free survival for high GAS5 expression was 33.7%, while was 29.8% for low GAS5 expression. The median survival time for high GAS5 expression is 28 months, while is 11 months for low GAS5 expression. These results together suggested downregulated expression of GAS5 in gastric cancer was significantly correlated with patients’ survival time.
Deregulated expression of GAS5 is an independent prognostic predictor for patient with gastric cancer
Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses GAS5 for DFS or OS of patients in study cohort (n = 89)
Age (<50 years vs. >50 years)
Gender (male vs. female)
Location (Distal vs. Middle + Proximal)
tumor size (>5 cm vs. <5 cm)
Histologic differentiation (Well + Moderately vs. Poorly + Undifferentiated)
Invasion depth (T1 + T2 vs.T3 + T4)
TNM stage (I + II vs. III + IV)
Lymphatic metastasis (No vs. Yes)
Regional lymph nodes (PN0+ PN1vs. PN2+ PN3)
Distant metastasis (No vs. Yes)
Expression of GAS5 (High vs. Low)
TNM stage (I + II vs. III + IV)
Distant metastasis (No vs. Yes)
Expression of GAS5 (High vs. Low)
Manipulation of GAS5 expression level in gastric cancer cells
In order to manipulate GAS5 level in gastric cancer cells, pCDNA3.1-GAS5 vector was transfected into BGC823 and SGC7901 cells. Expression of GAS5 was assessed using qRT-PCR analysis and a respective 159-fold and 93-fold increase in the pCDNA3.1-GAS5-transfected cells compared with the vector controls (Figure 2B). Furthermore, GAS5 siRNAs was transfected into MGC803 cells to downregulate endogenous GAS5 expression, qRT-PCR analysis revealed that GAS5 expression was effectively knocked down in si-GAS5 transfected cells when compared with si-NC control cells (Figure 2C).
Effect of GAS5 on gastric cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro
GAS5 inhibits gastric cancer cells tumorigenesis in vivo
E2F1 and P21 are key downstream mediators of GAS5
Further exploration of the underlying mechanisms involved in GAS5 overexpression induced growth arrest was done by examining the expression of potential targets after transfection with pCDNA3.1-GAS5 or empty vector. The results showed that the expression of E2F1 was significantly decreased and the expression of cyclin D1 was also downregulated in gastric cancer cells transfected with pCDNA3.1-GAS5 compared to those with empty vector. Moreover, increased P21 protein level were observed in cells transfected with pCDNA3.1-GAS5 compared to those with empty vector (Figure 5A and B). However, the mRNA expression of E2F1, cyclinD1 or P21 remained unaltered in the GAS5-overexpressed gastric cancer cells compared with the vector controls (data not shown). Meanwhile, we also assayed for changes in the protein expression of E2F1, cyclinD1 and P21 in si-GAS5 transfected MGC803 cells. As expected, when compared with si-NC control cells, inhibition of GAS5 resulted in an increase in E2F1 and cyclinD1 and a decrease of P21 levels (Figure 5C). These data suggest that GAS5 maybe function as an tumor suppressor by regulating E2F1 and P21 through post-transcriptional regulation, and further experiments are needed to elucidate the potential mechanism.
LncRNAs dysregulation may affect epigenetic information and provide a cellular growth advantage, resulting in progressive and uncontrolled tumor growth [14–18]. Effective control of both cell survival and cell proliferation is critical to the prevention of oncogenesis and to successful cancer therapy. Therefore, identification of cancer-associated lncRNAs and investigation of their clinical significance and functions may provide a missing piece of the well-known oncogenic and tumor suppressor network puzzle.
GAS5 is a long ncRNA (~650 bases in humans) that was originally isolated from a screen for potential tumor suppressor genes expressed at high levels during growth arrest . Its encoding gene, gas5, comprises 12 exons and encodes ten box C/D snoRNAs within its introns . Two mature GAS5 lncRNAs, GAS5a and GAS5b, have also been identified in humans due to the presence of alternative 5’-splice donor sites in exon 7, whereas GAS5b is the major isoform (NR_002578.2, 77 nt, simply called GAS5 in this study), and GAS5a has only 45 nt, missing 32 nt at the 3’ end . GAS5 has been shown to be aberrantly expressed in prostate cancer, renal cell carcinoma, breast cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and glioblastoma multiforme [19–21, 26]. For breast cancer and HNSCC, low GAS5 expression is an adverse prognostic factor for survival. Moreover, overexpression of GAS5 attributed to growth arrest of several cancer cell lines through regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle, under basal conditions or various cell death stimuli, including chemotherapeutic agents, suggesting its clinical significance in the development and therapy of cancer [19–21]. These data demonstrate the potential tumor-suppressor role of GAS5; however, the relationship between expression of GAS5 and gastric cancer development and/or progression remains unclear.
Our studies were designed to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of GAS5 in patients with gastric cancer. GAS5 expression was retrospectively analyzed in 89 patients with gastric carcinoma. Results were assessed for association with clinical features and DFS/OS of gastric cancer patients after gastrectomy. Prognostic values of GAS5 expression and clinical outcomes were also evaluated by Cox regression analysis. The results showed that GAS5 expression was significantly decreased in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. A lower expression of GAS5 was detected in tumor of larger size, higher tumor stage, deeper depth of invasion and more regional lymph nodes. In addition, the downregulation expression of GAS5 was associated with poor prognosis. Moreover, ectopic expression of GAS5 was demonstrated to decrease gastric cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, while downregulation of endogenous GAS5 could promote cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these findings indicate that GAS5 could function as a tumor suppressor via regulating cell growth and apoptosis, and may be useful in the development of novel prognostic or progression markers for gastric cancer.
Although GAS5 has been suggested to have a tumor-suppressive role, the underlying mechanism of GAS5-mediated gene expression having an impact on tumorigenesis is still elusive. Kino et al. have found that GAS5 could structurally mimic the glucocorticoid receptor response element (GRE) to suppress GR-induced transcriptional activity of endogenous glucocorticoid- responsive genes . Zhang et al. have provided a possible mechanism for GAS5 as a tumor suppressor, which may be attributed to its ability to suppress the oncogenic miR-21 in breast cancer . Nevertheless, since it’s highly possible that target genes of lncRNAs differ between specific tissues and cell types, specific target genes controlled by GAS5 for gastric pathogenesis remain unknown and deserve investigation. In this study, to explore the molecular mechanism by which GAS5 contributes to cell proliferation of gastric cancer, we investigated potential targets which were responsible for cell cycle arrest and cell growth inhibition. Our present experimental results confirmed that E2F1, as well as Cyclin D1, were functional targets of GAS5 in gastric cells. E2F1 expression has been found to be upregulated in mutiple cancers, and its overexpression contributes to many tumors development by acting as an important transcript factor regulating key regulator genes that controlling cell proliferation [28, 29]. Cyclin D1 is one of the most important proteins to regulate cell cycle, and related with the development of many cancers. Cyclin D1 binds and activates CDK4/6, which subsequently phosphorylates tumor suppressor protein Rb and allows the cell cycle to progress through G1 into S . Furthermore, P21 expression has been shown to be reduced or lost in a variety of cancer types . A possible explanation is that P21 exerts its inhibitory control over the cell cycle primarily through direct binding to cyclins and CDKs, therefore preventing cell proliferation . Here, we also found P21 was a downstream regulator involved in GAS5-mediated growth arrest in gastric cancer cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that lncRNA GAS5 may function as a tumor suppressor and its deficiency or decreased expression could contribute to gastric cancer development; however, further studies are required to clarify GAS5 regulation of the above targets expression in gastric cancer cells.
In summary, we demonstrate that the decreased GAS5 expression is a common event underlying gastric cancer, indicating that GAS5 may play a key tumor-suppressive as an indicator of poor survival rate and a negative prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients. Further well understanding of the mechanisms of GAS5 in the molecular etiology of gastric cancer will promote the development of lncRNA-directed diagnostic and therapeutic agents against this deadly disease.
Ming Sun, Fei-yan Jin, and Rui Xia are joint first authors.
Xiang-Hua Liu was supported by the National Natural Scientific Foundation of China (No. 81301824). Ming Sun was supported by Jiangsu province ordinary university graduate student research innovation project for 2013 (CXZZ13_0562).
- Herszenyi L, Tulassay Z: Epidemiology of gastrointestinal and liver tumors. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2010, 14 (4): 249-258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Catalano V, Labianca R, Beretta GD, Gatta G, de Braud F, Van Cutsem E: Gastric cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2009, 71 (2): 127-164. 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2009.01.004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vogiatzi P, Vindigni C, Roviello F, Renieri A, Giordano A: Deciphering the underlying genetic and epigenetic events leading to gastric carcinogenesis. J Cell Physiol. 2007, 211 (2): 287-295. 10.1002/jcp.20982.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Crew KD, Neugut AI: Epidemiology of gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2006, 12 (3): 354-362.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Pinheiro H, Bordeira-Carrico R, Seixas S, Carvalho J, Senz J, Oliveira P, Inacio P, Gusmao L, Rocha J, Huntsman D, Seruca R, Oliveira C: Allele-specific CDH1 downregulation and hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. Hum Mol Genet. 2010, 19 (5): 943-952. 10.1093/hmg/ddp537.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Birney E, Stamatoyannopoulos JA, Dutta A, Guigo R, Gingeras TR, Margulies EH, Weng Z, Snyder M, Dermitzakis ET, Thurman RE, Kuehn MS, Taylor CM, Neph S, Koch CM, Asthana S, Malhotra A, Adzhubei I, Greenbaum JA, Andrews RM, Flicek P, Boyle PJ, Cao H, Carter NP, Clelland GK, Davis S, Day N, Dhami P, Dillon SC, Dorschner MO, Fiegler H, et al: Identification and analysis of functional elements in 1% of the human genome by the ENCODE pilot project. Nature. 2007, 447 (7146): 799-816. 10.1038/nature05874.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guttman M, Amit I, Garber M, French C, Lin MF, Feldser D, Huarte M, Zuk O, Carey BW, Cassady JP, Cabili MN, Jaenisch R, Mikkelsen TS, Jacks T, Hacohen N, Bernstein BE, Kellis M, Regev A, Rinn JL, Lander ES: Chromatin signature reveals over a thousand highly conserved large non-coding RNAs in mammals. Nature. 2009, 458 (7235): 223-227. 10.1038/nature07672.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ponting CP, Oliver PL, Reik W: Evolution and functions of long noncoding RNAs. Cell. 2009, 136 (4): 629-641. 10.1016/j.cell.2009.02.006.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nagano T, Fraser P: No-nonsense functions for long noncoding RNAs. Cell. 2011, 145 (2): 178-181. 10.1016/j.cell.2011.03.014.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wilusz JE, Sunwoo H, Spector DL: Long noncoding RNAs: functional surprises from the RNA world. Genes Dev. 2009, 23 (13): 1494-1504. 10.1101/gad.1800909.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Louro R, Smirnova AS, Verjovski-Almeida S: Long intronic noncoding RNA transcription: expression noise or expression choice?. Genomics. 2009, 93 (4): 291-298. 10.1016/j.ygeno.2008.11.009.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Loewer S, Cabili MN, Guttman M, Loh YH, Thomas K, Park IH, Garber M, Curran M, Onder T, Agarwal S, Manos PD, Datta S, Lander ES, Schlaeger TM, Daley GQ, Rinn JL: Large intergenic non-coding RNA-RoR modulates reprogramming of human induced pluripotent stem cells. Nat Genet. 2010, 42 (12): 1113-1117. 10.1038/ng.710.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Mercer TR, Dinger ME, Mattick JS: Long non-coding RNAs: insights into functions. Nat Rev Genet. 2009, 10 (3): 155-159. 10.1038/nrg2521.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gupta RA, Shah N, Wang KC, Kim J, Horlings HM, Wong DJ, Tsai MC, Hung T, Argani P, Rinn JL, Wang Y, Brzoska P, Kong B, Li R, West RB, van de Vijver MJ, Sukumar S, Chang HY: Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR reprograms chromatin state to promote cancer metastasis. Nature. 2010, 464 (7291): 1071-1076. 10.1038/nature08975.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Nie Y, Liu X, Qu S, Song E, Zou H, Gong C: Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR is an independent prognostic marker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma progression and survival. Cancer Sci. 2013, 104 (4): 458-464. 10.1111/cas.12092.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Niinuma T, Suzuki H, Nojima M, Nosho K, Yamamoto H, Takamaru H, Yamamoto E, Maruyama R, Nobuoka T, Miyazaki Y, Nishida T, Bamba T, Kanda T, Ajioka Y, Taguchi T, Okahara S, Takahashi H, Nishida Y, Hosokawa M, Hasegawa T, Tokino T, Hirata K, Imai K, Toyota M, Shinomura Y: Upregulation of miR-196a and HOTAIR drive malignant character in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Cancer Res. 2012, 72 (5): 1126-1136. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-1803.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kotake Y, Nakagawa T, Kitagawa K, Suzuki S, Liu N, Kitagawa M, Xiong Y: Long non-coding RNA ANRIL is required for the PRC2 recruitment to and silencing of p15 (INK4B) tumor suppressor gene. Oncogene. 2011, 30 (16): 1956-1962. 10.1038/onc.2010.568.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhou Y, Zhang X, Klibanski A: MEG3 noncoding RNA: a tumor suppressor. J Mol Endocrinol. 2012, 48 (3): R45-R53. 10.1530/JME-12-0008.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Pickard MR, Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Williams GT: Long non-coding RNA GAS5 regulates apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013, 1832 (10): 1613-1623. 10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.05.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Qiao HP, Gao WS, Huo JX, Yang ZS: Long non-coding RNA GAS5 functions as a tumor suppressor in renal cell carcinoma. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013, 14 (2): 1077-1082. 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.2.1077.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Pickard MR, Hedge VL, Farzaneh F, Williams GT: GAS5, a non-protein-coding RNA, controls apoptosis and is downregulated in breast cancer. Oncogene. 2009, 28 (2): 195-208. 10.1038/onc.2008.373.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim K, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Johnson G, Frank J, Burghardt R, Kim S, Safe S: HOTAIR is a negative prognostic factor and exhibits pro-oncogenic activity in pancreatic cancer. Oncogene. 2013, 32 (13): 1616-1625. 10.1038/onc.2012.193.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schneider C, King RM, Philipson L: Genes specifically expressed at growth arrest of mammalian cells. Cell. 1988, 54 (6): 787-793. 10.1016/S0092-8674(88)91065-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Smith CM, Steitz JA: Classification of gas5 as a multi-small-nucleolar-RNA (snoRNA) host gene and a member of the 5’-terminal oligopyrimidine gene family reveals common features of snoRNA host genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1998, 18 (12): 6897-6909.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kino T, Hurt DE, Ichijo T, Nader N, Chrousos GP: Noncoding RNA gas5 is a growth arrest- and starvation-associated repressor of the glucocorticoid receptor. Sci Signal. 2010, 3 (107): ra8-PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Gee HE, Buffa FM, Camps C, Ramachandran A, Leek R, Taylor M, Patil M, Sheldon H, Betts G, Homer J, West C, Ragoussis J, Harris AL: The small-nucleolar RNAs commonly used for microRNA normalisation correlate with tumour pathology and prognosis. Br J Cancer. 2011, 104 (7): 1168-1177. 10.1038/sj.bjc.6606076.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Zhang Z, Zhu Z, Watabe K, Zhang X, Bai C, Xu M, Wu F, Mo YY: Negative regulation of lncRNA GAS5 by miR-21. Cell Death Differ. 2013, 20 (11): 1558-1568. 10.1038/cdd.2013.110.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Huang CL, Liu D, Nakano J, Yokomise H, Ueno M, Kadota K, Wada H: E2F1 overexpression correlates with thymidylate synthase and survivin gene expressions and tumor proliferation in non small-cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2007, 13 (23): 6938-6946. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-1539.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ma X, Gao Y, Fan Y, Ni D, Zhang Y, Chen W, Zhang P, Song E, Huang Q, Ai Q, Li H, Wang B, Zheng T, Shi T, Zhang X: Overexpression of E2F1 promotes tumor malignancy and correlates with TNM stages in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. PLoS One. 2013, 8 (9): e73436-10.1371/journal.pone.0073436.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Fu M, Wang C, Li Z, Sakamaki T, Pestell RG: Minireview: Cyclin D1: normal and abnormal functions. Endocrinology. 2004, 145 (12): 5439-5447. 10.1210/en.2004-0959.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abbas T, Dutta A: p21 in cancer: intricate networks and multiple activities. Nat Rev Cancer. 2009, 9 (6): 400-414. 10.1038/nrc2657.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Chen J, Saha P, Kornbluth S, Dynlacht BD, Dutta A: Cyclin-binding motifs are essential for the function of p21CIP1. Mol Cell Biol. 1996, 16 (9): 4673-4682.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/14/319/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.