NOTCH1 mutations influence survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients
© Willander et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 21 December 2012
Accepted: 29 May 2013
Published: 4 June 2013
NOTCH1 PEST domain mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia have recently been shown to be of prognostic relevance. Both NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 are constitutively activated in B-cell CLL but not expressed in normal B cells and may be involved in survival and resistance to apoptosis in CLL. We screened for mutations in different parts of both NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 genes and related the changes to survival and other known risk factors.
In a cohort of 209 CLL patients, we used single strand conformation analysis to determine which of the samples carrying the NOTCH mutations and direct dideoxy sequencing was used to determine the exact nucleotide changes. Kaplan-Meier curves and log rank test were used to determine overall survival for NOTCH1 mutated cases and Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazardous ratios.
In the present study, we found NOTCH1 PEST domain mutations in 6.7% of the cases. A shorter overall survival was found in patients with NOTCH1 mutations compared to wildtype (p = 0.049). Further, we also examined the extracellular and the heterodimerisation domains of the NOTCH1 gene and the PEST domain and heterodimerisation domain of the NOTCH2 gene, but no mutations were found in these regions. NOTCH1 mutations were most commonly observed in patients with unmutated IGHV gene (10/14), and associated with a more aggressive disease course. In addition, NOTCH1 mutations were almost mutually exclusive with TP53 mutations. In the combined group of NOTCH1 (6.7%) or TP53 (6.2%) mutations, a significant difference in overall survival compared to the wildtype NOTCH1 and TP53 was found (p = 0.002).
Both NOTCH1 and TP53 mutations seem to be independent predictive markers for worse outcome in CLL-patients and this study emphasizes the contention that NOTCH1 mutations is a novel risk marker.
KeywordsChronic lymphocytic leukemia NOTCH1 mutations TP53 mutations Prognostic markers
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical course characterized by a monoclonal progressive accumulation of mature CD5+ B-lymphocytes avoiding apoptosis. Some patients with an indolent disease need no or little treatment while others have a more adverse disease at diagnosis. No common genetic lesion, which causes the disease, has been found , but recurrent mutations in CLL involve TP53 and ATM, and novel mutations in the NOTCH1, SF3B1, MYD88, BIRC3 and FBXW7 genes have been identified through next generation sequencing . The CLL cases may be divided in two major groups regarding to mutated (M) or unmutated (UM) immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene (IGHV) where patients with an unmutated IGHV clone have a more adverse prognosis than patients with mutated IGHV gene [3, 4]. By the means of FISH analysis, different chromosomal aberrations as deletion in 11q, 13q, 17p or trisomy 12 are found in about 80% of tumor cells in the CLL-patients .
Recently, NOTCH1 mutations were found to be predictor of poor prognosis in CLL [6–11]. Furthermore a study of Rosati et al.  showed that NOTCH1 and NOTCH2, together with their ligands Jagged1 –and 2 are constitutively activated in B-CLL cells but not in normal B cells, suggesting that NOTCH signaling is involved in survival and resistance to apoptosis in CLL.
The NOTCH receptor is a membrane bound protein that consists of an extracellular, transmembrane and intracellular domain that can be released upon ligand interaction and transactivate target genes. The NOTCH signal pathway is activated by a ligand on a neighboring cell and plays an essential role in controlling proliferation, differentiation and survival. Following the receptor-ligand binding, the NOTCH receptor first undergoes a S2 proteolytic cleavage by ADAM proteinase in the extracellular domain, which then is followed by a S3 cleavage by a γ-secretase complex in the transmembrane domain releasing the intracellular NOTCH domain that translocates to the nucleus where it interacts with a transcription complex and acts as a transcriptional activator for multiple target genes . The C-terminal part of the intracellular domain consists of a PEST region that is important for proteasomal degradation of the NOTCH receptor by binding to FBXW7, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, to limit duration of the NOTCH activity. A CT deletion in the C-terminal region results in removal of the PEST domain, a truncated NOTCH protein, and impaired NOTCH degradation and constitutive transcriptional activation of NOTCH target genes in CLL [7, 14].
In the present study we have screened for mutations in different parts of both the NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 gene in a cohort of 209 CLL-patients. There is a high structural similarity between NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 genes and recent NOTCH2 gain-of-function mutations are found in B-cell lymphomas . Further, as NOTCH2 is involved in overexpression of CD23, one of the hallmarks of CLL , it prompted us to screen both the NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 genes for genetic alterations. Mutations were only found in the PEST region in the NOTCH1 gene in our cohort and emerged as an independent factor of poor overall survival and disease stage, in addition to TP53 mutations and IGHV gene status.
In this study, peripheral blood from 209 CLL patients (145 men and 64 women) was collected between 1996 and 2006 at the Department of Hematology, Linköping University Hospital. Mononuclear cells were isolated by Ficoll-Paque gradient centrifugation and genomic DNA was extracted by proteinase K digestion and stored frozen until used as earlier described . The samples were collected either at the time of diagnosis or prior to the first treatment. For all patients, follow-up data were available, and for 106 live patients the median follow-up time was 6.8 years (range 1.6-14.9 years). The median age at diagnosis was 62.5 years (range 38.3-87.0 years). The immunophenotype and the Binet staging system were according to the IWCLL guidelines . The immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes (IGHV) and TP53 gene status were analysed and reported in an earlier study . Informed consent was obtained from the patients and the study was approved by the regional ethical committee (Dnr 02–459) in Linköping and conducted in accordance with the ethical guidelines of the Helsinki Declaration.
NOTCHmutation status detection
T A /°C
TP53and IGHV gene status detection
TP53 gene mutation analysis was performed for exons 5–8 (the DNA binding domains) by the PCR-single strand conformation analysis (SSCA) technique and samples displaying mobility shifts were sequenced with the dideoxy termination method to confirm the nucleotide changes.
The IGHV gene mutational status was performed by PCR amplification on genomic DNA by using specific VH/JH primers , followed by DNA sequencing of both forward and reverse strands. To determine the IGHV gene identity the sequences were aligned by using the IMGT/V-QUEST database (http://imgt.org), ≥ 98% identity to the corresponding germline sequence was considered as an unmutated IGHV gene.
Kaplan-Meier curves were used to show the overall survival and the log-rank test was used to compare the survival between the groups. To calculate hazard ratios (HR) the Cox proportional hazard model (Cox-regression) was used. For all statistical analyses Stata v12.1 was used (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, USA). P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Overall survival was measured from date of diagnosis until the last follow-up or death.
Results and discussion
Clinical and biological characteristics of the 209 CLL-patients
Number of patients
TP 53 status
T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) display high frequency of activating NOTCH1 mutations including the extracellular heterodimerisation domain, in addition to elimination C-terminal PEST region mutations . Studies in head and neck cancer have also identified mutations in the extracellular epiderminal growth factor repeat domain in the NOTCH1 gene . These studies prompted us to screen for mutations in those parts of the NOTCH1 gene, but no mutations could be detected. NOTCH2 has a role in marginal zone B cell fate decision, similar to the critical role for NOTCH1 in determing the T-cell fate . NOTCH2 mutations are found in the C-terminal part close to the PEST region in splenic marginal zone lymphoma [23, 24], but we did not find any mutations in the PEST region or heterodimerisation domain of the NOTCH2 gene in our cohort.
Analysis for overall survival
Wildtype NOTCH1 and TP53
Mutated NOTCH1 or TP53
Five patients in this cohort had NOTCH1 mutation at the time of diagnosis. For these patients the median time to first treatment was 101 days (range 21 to 145 days). For the whole group the median time from diagnosis to the first treatment was 438 days (range 0–6021 days). Further and expected, all patients with NOTCH1 mutations identified at diagnosis had the more advanced Binet stages B and C, a tendency that due to few observations did not reach significance (p = 0.11) (Table 2). The frequency of NOTCH1 mutations is also reported to be significantly higher in Richter syndrome, i.e., a progression of CLL into diffuse large lymphoma with often dismal outcome [8, 30], however our cohort contained no information on the prevalence of Richter syndrome.
It is now recommended to perform TP53 mutation analysis in patients with CLL as TP53 mutations occur in about 5% of cases in absence of 17p deletion and represent an independent prognostic factor associated with worse outcome . CLL patients with 17p deletion and/or TP53 mutations are strongly associated with refractory disease, and also activated NOTCH1 mutations were recently suggested to cause refractoriness to fludarabine [8, 9, 32].
Our study confirms other recent reports that NOTCH1 mutation eliminating the PEST domain, has a prognostic value as a novel risk marker in CLL similar to TP53 mutations. Thus both NOTCH1 and TP53 mutation may be an indication for earlier and more active treatment or as an indicator for transplantation therapy.
This study is supported by FORSS grant #235261.
- Chiorazzi N, Rai KR, Ferranini M: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia. N Engl J Med. 2005, 352: 805-815.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang L, Lawrence MS, Wan Y, Stojanov P, Sougnez C, Stevenson K, Werner L, Sivachenko A, DeLuca DS, Zhang L, Zhang W, Zhang W, Vartanov AR, Fernandes SM, Goldstein NR, Folco EG, Cibulskis K, Tesar B, Sievers QL, Shefler E, Gabriel S, Hacohen N, Reed R, Meyerson M, Golub TR, Lander ES, Neuberg D, Brown JR, Getz G, Wu CJ: SF3B1 and other novel cancer genes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. N Engl J Med. 2011, 365: 2497-2506.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Damle RN, Wasil T, Fais F, Ghiotto F, Valetto A, Allen SL, Buchbinder A, Budman D, Dittmar K, Kolitz J, Lichtman SM, Schulman P, Vinciguerra VP, Rai KR, Ferrarini M, Chiorazzi N: IgV gene mutation status and CD 38 expression as novel prognostic indicators in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 1999, 94: 1840-1847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hamblin TJ, Davis Z, Gardiner A, Oscier DG, Stevenson FK: Unmutated IgV(H) genes are associated with a more aggressive form of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 1999, 94: 1848-1854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Döhner H, Stielgenbauer S, Benner A, Leupolt E, Kröber A, Bullinger L, Döhner K, Bentz M, Lichter P: Genomic aberrations and survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. N Engl J Med. 2000, 343: 1910-1916.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sportoletti P, Baldoni S, Cavalli L, Del Papa B, Bonifacio E, Ciurnelli R, Bell AS, Di Tommaso A, Rosati E, Crescenzi B, Mecucci C, Screpanti I, Marconi P, Martelli MF, Di Ianni M, Falzetti F: Notch1 PEST domain mutation is an adverse prognostic factor in B-CLL. British Journal of Haematology. 2010, 151: 404-406.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Puente XS, Pinyol M, Quesada V, Conde L, Ordonez GR, Villamor N, Escaramis G, Jares P, Beà S, González-Díaz M, Bassaganyas L, Baumann T, Juan M, López-Guerra M, Colomer D, Tubío JM, López C, Navarro A, Tornador C, Aymerich M, Rozman M, Hernández JM, Puente DA, Freije JM, Velasco G, Gutiérrez-Fernández A, Costa D, Carrió A, Guijarro S, Enjuanes A: Whole genome sequencing identifies recurrent mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Nature. 2011, 475: 101-105.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Fabbri G, Rasi S, Rossi D, Trifonov V, Khiabanian H, Ma J, Grunn A, Fangazio M, Capello D, Monti S, Cresta S, Gargiulo E, Forconi F, Guarini A, Arcaini L, Paulli M, Laurenti L, Larocca LM, Marasca R, Gattei V, Oscier D, Bertoni F, Mullighan CG, Foá R, Pasqualucci L, Rabadan R, Dalla-Favera R, Gaidano G: Analysis of the chronic lymphocytic leukemia coding genome: role of NOTCH1 mutational activation. J Exp Med. 2011, 208: 1389-1401.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Rossi D, Rasi S, Fabbri G, Spina V, Fangazio M, Forconi F, Marasca R, Laurenti L, Bruscaggin A, Cerri M, Monti S, Cresta S, Famà R, De Paoli L, Bulian P, Gattei V, Guarini A, Deaglio S, Capello D, Rabadan R, Pasqualucci L, Dalla-Favera R, Foà R, Gaidano G: Mutations of Notch1 are an independent predictor of survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 2012, 119: 521-529.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Shedden K, Li Y, Quillette P, Malek SN: Characteristics of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with somatically acquired mutations in exon 34. Leukemia. 2011, 26: 1108-1110.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Mansouri L, Cahill N, Gunnarsson R, Smedby KE, Tjönnfjord E, Hjalgrim H, Juliusson G, Geisler C, Rosenquist R: NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations can be added to the hierarchical prognostic classification in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia. 2013, 27: 512-514.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rosati E, Sabatini R, Rampino G, Tabilio A, Di Ianni M, Fettucciari K, Bartoli A, Coaccioli S, Screpanti I, Marconi P: Constitutively activated Notch signaling is involved in survival and apoptosis resistance of B-CLL cells. Blood. 2009, 113: 856-865.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Radtke F, Wilson A, Mancini SJC, Robson MacDonald H: Notch regulation of lymphocyte development and function. Nature Immunology. 2004, 5: 247-253.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Palomero T, Lim WK, Odom DT, Sulis ML, Real PJ, Margolin A, Barnes KC, O’Neil J, Neuberg D, Weng AP, Aster JC, Sigaux F, Soulier J, Look AT, Young RA, Califano A, Ferrando AA: Notch1 directly regulates c-MYC and activates a feed-forward-loop transcriptional network promoting leukemic cell growth. PNAS. 2006, 103: 18261-18266.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Lee SY, Kumano K, Nakazaki K, Sanada M, Matsumoto A, Yamamoto G, Nannya Y, Suzuki R, Ota S, Ota Y, Izutsu K, Sakata-Yanagimoto M, Hangaishi A, Yagita H, Fukayama M, Seto M, Kurokawa M, Ogawa S, Chiba S: Gain-of-function mutations and copy number increases of Notch2 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Cancer Science. 2009, 100: 920-926.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hubmann R, Schwarzmeier JD, Sheta M, Hilgarth M, Duechler M, Dettke M, Berger R: Notch2 is involved in overexperssion of CD23 in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 2002, 99: 3742-3747.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Willander K, Ungerbäck J, Karlsson K, Fredrikson M, Söderkvist P, Linderholm M: MDM2 SNP309 promoter polymorphism, an independent prognostic factor in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. European Journal of Haematology. 2010, 85: 251-256.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hallek M, Cheson BD, Catovsky D, Caligaris-Cappio F, Dighiero G, Döhner H, Hillmen P, Keating MJ, Montserrat E, Rai KR, Kipps TJ: Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a report from an international workshop on chronic lymphocytic leukemia updating the national cancer institute working group 1996 guidelines. Blood. 2008, 111: 5446-5456.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Orita M, Suzuki Y, Sekiya T, Hayashi K: Rapid and sensitive detection of point mutations and DNA polymorphism using the polymerase chain reaction. Genomics. 1989, 5: 874-879.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- van Dongen JJ, Langerak AW, Brüggemann M, Evans PA, Hummel M, Lavender FL, Delabesse E, Davi F, Schuuring E, García-Sanz R, van Krieken JH, Droese J, González D, Bastard C, White HE, Spaargaren M, González M, Parreira A, Smith JL, Morgan GJ, Kneba M, Macintyre EA: Design and standardization of PCR primers and protocols for detection of clonal immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene recombinations in suspect lymphoproliferations: report of BIOMED-2 Concerted Action BMH4-CT98-3936. Leukemia. 2003, 17: 2257-2317.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weng AP, Ferrando AA, Lee W, Morris JP, Silverman LB, Sanchez-Irizarry C, Blacklow SC, Look AT, Aster JC: Activating mutations of NOTCH1 in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Science. 2004, 306: 269-271.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stransky N, Egloff AM, Tward AD, Kostic AD, Cibulskis K, Sivachenko A, Kryukov GV, Lawrence MS, Sougnez C, McKenna A, Shefler E, Ramos AH, Stojanov P, Carter SL, Voet D, Cortés ML, Auclair D, Berger MF, Saksena G, Guiducci C, Onofrio RC, Parkin M, Romkes M, Weissfeld JL, Seethala RR, Wang L, Rangel-Escareño C, Fernandez-Lopez JC, Hidalgo-Miranda A, Melendez-Zajgla J: The mutational landscape of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Science. 2011, 333: 1157-1160.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Rossi D, Trifonov V, Fangazio M, Bruscaggin A, Rasi S, Spina V, Monti S, Vaisitti T, Arruga F, Famà R, Ciardullo C, Greco M, Cresta S, Piranda D, Holmes A, Fabbri G, Messina M, Rinaldi A, Wang J, Agostinelli C, Piccaluga PP, Lucioni M, Tabbò F, Serra R, Franceschetti S, Deambrogi C, Daniele G, Gattei V, Marasca R: The coding genome of splenic marginal zone lymphoma: activation of NOTCH2 and other pathways regulating marginal zone development. J Exp Med. 2012, 209: 1537-1551.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kiel MJ, Velusamy T, Betz BL, Zhao L, Weigelin HG, Chiang MY, Huebner-Chan DR, Bailey NG, Yang DT, Bhagat G, Miranda RN, Bahler DW, Medeiros LJ, Lim MS, Elenitoba-Johnson KS: Whole-genome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic NOTCH2 mutations in splenic marginal zone lymphoma. J Exp Med. 2012, 209: 1553-1565.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Zenz T, Kröber A, Scherer K, Häbe S, Bühler A, Benner A, Denzel T, Winkler D, Edelmann J, Schwänen C, Döhner H, Stilgenbauer S: Monoallelic TP53 inactivation is associated with poor prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results from a detailed genetic characterization with long-term follow-up. Blood. 2008, 112: 3322-3329.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baletti V, Bottoni A, Palamarchuk A, Alder H, Rassenti LZ, Kipps TJ: Notch1 mutations in CLL associated with trisomy 12. Blood. 2012, 119: 329-331.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Del Guidice I, Rossi D, Chiaretti S, Marinelli M, Tavolaro S, Gabrielli S, Laurenti L, Marasca R, Rasi S, Fangazio M, Guarini A, Gaidano G, Foà R: Notch1 mutations in +12 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) confer and unfavorable prognosis, induce a distinctive transcriptional profiling and refine the intermediate prognosis of +12 CLL. Haematologica. 2012, 97: 437-441.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Secchiero P, Melloni E, di Iasio MG, Tiribelli M, Rimondi E, Corallini F, Gattei V, Zauli G: Nutlin-3 up-regulates the expression of Notch1 in both myeloid and lymphoid leukemic cells, as part of negative feedback antiapoptotic mechanism. Blood. 2009, 113: 4300-4308.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Paolo Dotto G: Crosstalk of Notch with p53 and p63 in cancer growth control. Nature Rev. Cancer. 2009, 9: 587-595.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rossi D, Rasi S, Spina V, Fangazio M, Monti S, Greco M, Ciardullo C, Famà R, Cresta S, Bruscaggin A, Laurenti L, Martini M, Musto P, Forconi F, Marasca R, Larocca LM, Foà R, Gaidano G: Different impact of NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations on the risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia transformation to Richter syndrome. British Journal of Haematoloy. 2012, 158: 426-229.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pospisilova S, Gonzalez D, Malcikova J, Trbusek M, Rossi D, Kater AP, Cymbalista F, Eichhorst B, Hallek M, Döhner H, Hillmen P, van Oers M, Gribben J, Ghia P, Montserrat E, Stilgenbauer S, Zenz T: ERIC recommendations on TP53 mutation analysis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia. 2012, 26: 1458-1461.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zenz T, Gribben JG, Hallek M, Döhner H, Keating MJ, Stielgenbauer S: Risk categories and refractory CLL in era of chemoimmunotherapy. Blood. 2012, 119: 4101-4107.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/13/274/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.