The changes of Th17 cells and the related cytokines in the progression of human colorectal cancers
© Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 8 May 2012
Accepted: 31 August 2012
Published: 21 September 2012
The role of Th17 cells in colorectal tumorigenesis and development still remains unclear, despite the fact that it has been established in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.
We first analyzed Th17 cells and Treg cells using flow cytometry in the circulation of colorectal adenoma (CRA) and colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients and healthy controls, and the frequency of Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated by anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 and treated by IL-1β, IL-6, and TGF-β in different concentrations. We then detected cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-23 or TGF-β by ELISA in sera and supernatants from both normal and tumor tissues cultured ex vivo.
It was found that the percentage of Th17 and Treg cells increased in the circulation of both CRA and CRC patients; the increase of Th17 cells in the circulation occurred in early stages, whereas the increase of Treg cells in the circulation and the increase of Th17 cells in tumor tissues occurred in advanced stages. The subsequent cytokine profiling showed that, along CRC progression, IL-1β, IL-17A and IL-23 underwent a similar change, while IL-6 in CRC exhibited an opposite change, with Th17 cells. In addition, high levels of TGF-β and IL-17A were detected in tumor tissues rather than in normal mucosa. The in vitro experiment further demonstrated that IL-1β, IL-6 or TGF-β modulated Th17 cell expansion in PBMC.
Our study reveals a unique change of Th17 cells, which is regulated possibly by IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β in the progression of CRC.
KeywordsColorectal adenoma Colorectal cancer Th17 cells Treg cells Cytokines
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. Although the modality of CRC has recently showed a slow reduction due to improvement in early detection and/or treatment in the United States, it still keeps rising in China, especially in the big metropolitan areas [1, 2], thus still imposing a severe threat to human health.
According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence hypothesis , CRC develops through a multistep process from initially low-grade dysplastic adenoma to high-grade dysplastic adenoma and ultimately to carcinoma. Progression through this sequence is accompanied by accumulation of tumorigenesis-related genetic mutations and molecular changes [3, 4]. The increasing evidence shows that the balance in different CD4-positive T lymphocyte subpopulations and cytokine networks are also deregulated [4–6]. The changes of cytokine profiles in the serum may be early events along the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Thus, they may serve as important biological indices for the prognosis of CRC [6–8]. In addition, subtyping of immune cells within tumor tissues may be more effective in evaluating disease status than genetic changes [9–11].
Among different T lymphocyte subpopulations, CD4+CD25+ T cells (Tregs) are vital in maintaining immune tolerance and homeostasis. But they may promote tumor progression by inhibiting anti-cancer immune responses [12, 13]. Recent evidence suggests that expression of IL-7 receptor-chain (also known as CD127) on cell surface is inversely correlated with the suppressive function of CD4+CD25hi Tregs and the expression of Foxp3, which is an Treg-expressing transcription factor, so the Tregs can also be characterized by CD4+CD25+CD127lo/- phenotype [14, 15].
Recently, the Th17 cell, which is another CD4-positive T lymphocyte subpopulation with its designation following the feature of secreting IL-17, has been extensively described for its involvement in several autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory syndromes [16, 17]. However, the role of Th17 cells in tumor immunity was less studied as compared with Treg cells.
Among all cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, IL-23 and TGF-β have been implicated in several autoimmune diseases and inflammatory disorders. They are also known to be able to modulate differentiation and development of Th17 cells and Treg cells [17, 18]. In mice, low doses of TGF-β, together with IL-6 or IL-21 can initiate differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into the Th17 lineage, while high doses of TGF-β can drive formation of the Treg lineage from naïve CD4+ T cell [19, 20]. IL-23 is thought to be required in the maintenance of Th17 cell phenotype [17, 19, 21, 22]. In humans, in addition to IL-6, IL-21, TGF-β and IL-23,IL-1β was also found important in regulating Th17 cell differentiation [22–26].
Despite a great knowledge about differentiation and function of Th17 cells in both mice and humans has been accumulated, generation and regulation of Th17 cells in human cancer, especially in colorectal cancer, still remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the changes of Th17 and Treg cells, and the related cytokines in the peripheral blood of patients with colorectal adenoma (CRA) or CRC. We also detected the frequency of Th17 cells and concentrations of the related cytokines in both CRC tissues and the surrounding normal tissues. In addition, to determine which cytokines play more dominant roles in the prevalence of Th17 cells, we subsequently assessed in an in vitro experiment the effect of the related cytokines on the expansion of Th17 cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
Clinical features of patients with colorectal adenoma and carcinoma
Right side of colon
Left side of colon
AJCC cancer stage
Adenoma histological grade
Collagenase type IV, hyaluronidase, deoxyribonuclease type I, Ficoll-Hypaque and Percoll were from Sigma-Aldrich. Recombinant IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β1 were from PeproTech. Anti-human CD4, CD25 and isotype controls were from BD Bioscience. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), ionomycin, Brefeldin A, FIX & PERM Kit Reagent, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-23, TGF-β ELISA kit, and Anti-human CD3, CD28, CD8, CD127, IL-17A and isotype controls were from eBioscience.
Tissue culture was performed as previously described . Briefly, tumor tissue or normal mucosa was washed, weighed, and then placed in a small tissue culture dish containing RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10% FBS and antibiotics. After incubation at 37°C with 5% CO2 for 24 h and then centrifugation, the supernatant of each sample was used for cytokine measurements.
Normal infiltrating lymphocytes (NILs) and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were isolated from freshly resected surgical specimens by a method reported previously with some modifications . In brief, the epithelial layer was removed by stirring in 1 mM EDTA and 1 mM DTT for 1 h at 37°C. The tissue was minced, then treated with a digestion solution containing 0.5 mg/ml collagenase type IV, 1 mg/ml hyaluronidase and 0.1 mg/ml deoxyribonuclease type I for 2 h with stirring at 37°C. After digestion, the cells were washed and centrifuged over a discontinuous Percoll gradient (75% and 40%). PBMCs were isolated using Ficoll-Hypaque gradient. The cells at the interface were harvested, washed and re-suspended in RPMI-1640 complete medium. The cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion.
Stimulation of PBMCs
The freshly isolated PBMCs (1 × 106 cells/well) from health donors were stimulated in 4 μg/ml anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody-coated 96-well plate and 2 μg/ml anti-CD28 antibody, and incubated for 84 h with RPMI-1640 complete medium containing different cytokines (IL-1β, 10 and 25 ng/ml; IL-6, 25 and 50 ng/ml; TGF-β1, 5 and 0.5 ng/ml ) alone or in combination. For intracellular cytokine staining, the purified PBMCs, NILs and TILs were stimulated for 5 h in RPMI complete medium with 50 ng/ml PMA and 1 μg/ml ionomycin in the presence of 10 μg/ml Brefeldin A.
Concentrations of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-23 or TGF-β in sera, supernatants of tissue, and cell cultures of the stimulated PBMCs were measured using a specific ELISA kit. Results of the cytokine concentrations in the supernatant of tissue cultures are expressed as pg/mg of tissue weight/ml of culture medium.
Flow cytometry assays
Surface protein staining of PBMCs, NILs and TILs were performed at room temperature for 20 min using the following antibodies: the PE-Cy5-conjugated anti-CD3 and FITC-conjugated anti-CD8 were used for staining Th17 cells; the FITC-conjugated anti-CD4 and PE-CyTM7-conjugated anti-CD25 and PE-conjugated anti-CD127 were used for Treg Cells. Before staining with the PE-conjugated anti-IL-17A, cells were washed, fixed and permeated using FIX & PERM Kit Reagent following the manufacturer’s instructions. The isotype control of each dye-conjugated antibody was used to correct compensation and confirm antibody specificity. The stained cells were analyzed by a Calibur flow cytometer equipped with CellQuest software.
Data were analyzed by SPSS statistical software (version 16, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) using Student's t test or one-way ANOVA and the Mann–Whitney U test or the Kruskal-Wallis test. A level of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Percentage of the circulating Th17 cells in CRA and CRC patients
Distribution of Th17 cells in NILs and TILs
Subsequently, we found that percentage of Th17 cells in TILs (1.8%; 0.8% to 2.8%) was increased as compared with NILs (1.7%; 0.8% to 2.6%) or PBMCs (1.6%; 1.2% to 2.5%), but did not show any statistical significance. However, the percentage of Th17 cells in the TILs of patients in advanced stages was significantly higher than that in early stages (2.7%; 1.0% to 4.1% vs 1.4%; 0.7% to 1.8%, P = 0.03) (Figure 1).
Percentage of the circulating Tregs in CRA and CRC patients
Seral concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A and IL-23 of CRA and CRC patients
Concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-23 and TGF-β released from the cultured tissues
Effect of IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β on the expansion of Th17 cells in PBMCs
The present study provided for the first time comprehensive data on the changes of Th17/Treg cells and cytokines IL-1β,IL-6,IL-17A,IL-21,IL-23 and TGF-β in the development and progression of CRC. It demonstrated in both CRA and CRC patients an increase of circulating Th17 cells in early stages and an increase of circulating Treg cells in advanced stages, and an increase of tumor infiltrating Th17 cells in advanced CRC tissues. The changes of Th17 cells along disease progression were accompanied by alterations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-23 in serum and IL-1β, IL-6 in tumor tissues. In vitro studies further supported that the expansion of the Th17 cells were regulated by IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β in different combinations and/or concentrations.
Previously, the elevated percentage of Th17 cells were detected in blood, bone marrow, and spleen in mouse tumor models, and in peripheral blood, malignant ascites and tumor tissues in patients of advanced ovarian, pancreatic, renal cell carcinomas, melanoma, and breast and colon cancers [29, 30]. In gastric cancer, there were elevations of Th17 cells in the peripheral blood as well as tumor-draining lymph nodes, both of which were associated with clinical stages of cancer development . However, in ovarian cancer patients, the percentage of Th17 cells appeared higher in tumor but lower in peripheral blood or PBMCs and tumor-draining lymph nodes [32, 33]. Our data showed that the frequency of Th17 cells was markedly increased in the circulation of both CRA and CRC patients, but became significantly lower as the diseases progressed to the advanced stages. Moreover, our observations were consistent with an animal study, in which the Th17 cells were increased in tumor tissues as disease progressed and reached to a maximal level in advanced tumors .
A previous study showed that IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β were involved in differentiation and expansion of the Th17 cells in ovarian cancers; IL-1β and IL-6 promoted, whereas TGF-β inhibited, Th17 cell expansion . Our results showed that the changes in Th17 cell number along disease progression were accompanied by variations of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23 levels, suggesting the association of these cytokines with Th17 cell expansion. Given that the variation of cytokine levels, as seen in TGF-β, did not consistently follow the change of Th17 cells, we speculated the existence of an optimal level of these cytokines in regulating Th17 cell expansion. Indeed, we found that TGF-βlo, IL-6 lo or IL-1βhi increased Th17 cell number in PBMCs. However,IL-6hi plus TGF-βhi unexpectedly promoted Th17 cell expansion, suggesting that a complex cytokine context, rather than the change of individual cytokines, is more likely involved in regulating Th17 cells. In the early stages, accumulation of Th17 cells in tumor tissues may be supported by high concentrations of TGF-β and IL-6. However, following tumor progression, high level of IL-1β, and possibly IL-23 as well, with the reduced levels of IL-6 and TGF-β may become supporting cytokine milieu for the expansion of Th17 cells in tumor tissues.
In this study, we detected the reduced level of IL-1β and increased frequency of Th17 cells in the circulation of CRCs as compared with that of CRAs. Since the IL-23 level is commonly elevated in the circulation of CRC patients, we speculated that IL-23 or other unknown factors, rather than IL-1β, may be more responsible for the expansion of Th17 cells in the circulation of CRC patients. Nevertheless, new studies are needed to test this hypothesis.
Previous reports showed that IL-21 promoted differentiation of human naïve CD4+T cells into Th17 cells . IL-21 was found essential in patients of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in promoting IL-17 production in anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated LPMCs, whereas IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23 and TGF-β exerted no effects . However, our observation showed no significant difference in IL-21 level between normal tissues and tumor tissues or between early and advanced CRC tissues. This discrepancy may be interpreted by the difference in immunological mechanisms for regulating Th17 cells between IBD and cancer.
Previous studies showed that Th17 cells can be recruited into tumor microenvironment from the circulation . These findings are supportive at least in part to our observations that, in advanced CRCs, the Th17 cells became reduced in the circulation but increased in tumor tissues. We cannot of course exclude another possibility that the Th17 cells were converted into Treg cells during tumor progression. The emerging evidence suggested that Th17 cells are of functional plasticity and can be converted into Treg cells in vitro and these cells cannot change back to Th17 cells even under the highly favorable conditions [35, 36]. Nevertheless, new studies to test these two possibilities are warranted.
Our study uncovers a unique change of Th17 cells and Treg cells and cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, and IL-23 along the progression of CRC. It further reveals that the Th17 cells are subjected to a complicated modulation by IL-1β,IL-6 and TGF-β. Clearly, the current study advances our understanding of the immunological mechanisms for CRC progression. It may thus help identify novel prognostic and therapeutic strategies for this disease.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells
Normal infiltrating lymphocytes
Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes
Regulatory T cell.
This work was supported by PI’s starting fund from Shijitan Hospital and Chinese National Science and Technology Fund (H1609-81172102). The authors thank Hongbo Yu for the assistance in statistical analysis.
- Center MM, Jemal A, Ward E: International trends in colorectal cancer incidence rates. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009, 18: 1688-1694. 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0090.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sung JJ, Lau JY, Young GP, Sano Y, Chiu HM, Byeon JS, Yeoh KG, Goh KL, Sollano J, Rerknimitr R, Matsuda T, Wu KC, Ng S, Leung SY, Makharia G, Chong VH, Ho KY, Brooks D, Lieberman DA, Chan FK: Asia Pacific Working Group on Colorectal Cancer: Asia Pacific consensus recommendations for colorectal cancer screening. Gut. 2008, 57: 1166-1176. 10.1136/gut.2007.146316.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leslie A, Carey FA, Pratt NR, Steele RJ: The colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Br J Surg. 2002, 89: 845-860. 10.1046/j.1365-2168.2002.02120.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Contasta I, Pellegrini P, Berghella AM, Del Beato T, Adorno D: Colon cancer and gene alterations: their immunological implications and suggestions for prognostic indices and improvements in biotherapy. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2006, 21: 488-505. 10.1089/cbr.2006.21.488.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cui G, Goll R, Olsen T, Steigen SE, Husebekk A, Vonen B, Florholmen J: Reduced expression of microenvironmental Th1 cytokines accompanies adenomas-carcinomas sequence of colorectum. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2007, 56: 985-995. 10.1007/s00262-006-0259-y.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berghella AM, Contasta I, Pellegrini P, Del Beato T, Adorno D: Are immunological mechanisms involved in colon cancer and are they possible markers for biotherapy improvement?. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2006, 21: 468-487. 10.1089/cbr.2006.21.468.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pellegrini P, Berghella AM, Contasta I, Del Beato T, Adorno D: The study of a patient's immune system may prove to be a useful noninvasive tool for stage classification in colon cancer. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2006, 21: 443-467. 10.1089/cbr.2006.21.443.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cui G, Florholmen J: Polarization of cytokine profile from Th1 into Th2 along colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence: implications for the biotherapeutic target?. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2008, 7: 94-97. 10.2174/187152808785107589.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Galon J, Costes A, Sanchez-Cabo F, Kirilovsky A, Mlecnik B, Lagorce-Pagès C, Tosolini M, Camus M, Berger A, Wind P, Zinzindohoué F, Bruneval P, Cugnenc PH, Trajanoski Z, Fridman WH, Pagès F: Type, density, and location of immune cells within human colorectal tumors predict clinical outcome. Science. 2006, 313: 1960-1964. 10.1126/science.1129139.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pagès F, Berger A, Camus M, Sanchez-Cabo F, Costes A, Molidor R, Mlecnik B, Kirilovsky A, Nilsson M, Damotte D, Meatchi T, Bruneval P, Cugnenc PH, Trajanoski Z, Fridman WH, Galon J: Effector memory T cells, early metastasis, and survival in colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005, 353: 2654-2666. 10.1056/NEJMoa051424.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ogino S, Nosho K, Irahara N, Meyerhardt JA, Baba Y, Shima K, Glickman JN, Ferrone CR, Mino-Kenudson M, Tanaka N, Dranoff G, Giovannucci EL, Fuchs CS: Lymphocytic reaction to colorectal cancer is associated with longer survival, independent of lymph node count, microsatellite instability, and CpG island methylator phenotype. Clin Cancer Res. 2009, 15: 6412-6420. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-1438.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Zou W: Regulatory T cells, tumour immunity and immunotherapy. Nat Rev Immunol. 2006, 6: 295-307. 10.1038/nri1806.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gallimore AM, Simon AK: Positive and negative influences of regulatory T cells on tumour immunity. Oncogene. 2008, 27: 5886-5893. 10.1038/onc.2008.269.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liu W, Putnam AL, Xu-Yu Z, Szot GL, Lee MR, Zhu S, Gottlieb PA, Kapranov P, Gingeras TR, FazekasdeStGroth B, Clayberger C, Soper DM, Ziegler SF, Bluestone JA: CD127 expression inversely correlates with FoxP3 and suppressive function of human CD4+ T reg cells. J Exp Med. 2006, 203: 1701-1711. 10.1084/jem.20060772.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Shen LS, Wang J, Shen DF, Yuan XL, Dong P, Li MX, Xue J, Zhang FM, Ge HL, Xu D: CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low/-) regulatory T cells express Foxp3 and suppress effector T cell proliferation and contribute to gastric cancers progression. Clin Immunol. 2009, 131: 109-118. 10.1016/j.clim.2008.11.010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tesmer LA, Lundy SK, Sarkar S, Fox DA: Th17 cells in human disease. Immunol Rev. 2008, 223: 87-113. 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2008.00628.x.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Miossec P, Korn T, Kuchroo VK: Interleukin-17 and type 17 helper T cells. N Engl J Med. 2009, 361: 888-898. 10.1056/NEJMra0707449.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leung S, Liu X, Fang L, Chen X, Guo T, Zhang J: The cytokine milieu in the interplay of pathogenic Th1/Th17 cells and regulatory T cells in autoimmune disease. Cell Mol Immunol. 2010, 7: 182-189. 10.1038/cmi.2010.22.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bettelli E, Carrier Y, Gao W, Korn T, Strom TB, Oukka M, Weiner HL, Kuchroo VK: Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells. Nature. 2006, 441: 235-238. 10.1038/nature04753.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhou L, Lopes JE, Chong MM, Ivanov II, Min R, Victora GD, Shen Y, Du J, Rubtsov YP, Rudensky AY, Ziegler SF, Littman DR: TGF-beta-induced Foxp3 inhibits T(H)17 cell differentiation by antagonizing RORgammat function. Nature. 2008, 453: 236-240. 10.1038/nature06878.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Stritesky GL, Yeh N, Kaplan MH: IL-23 promotes maintenance but not commitment to the Th17 lineage. J Immunol. 2008, 181: 5948-5955.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Mills KH: Induction, function and regulation of IL-17-producing T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2008, 38: 2636-2649. 10.1002/eji.200838535.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang L, Anderson DE, Baecher-Allan C, Hastings WD, Bettelli E, Oukka M, Kuchroo VK, Hafler DA: IL-21 and TGF-beta are required for differentiation of human T(H)17 cells. Nature. 2008, 454: 350-352. 10.1038/nature07021.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Volpe E, Servant N, Zollinger R, Bogiatzi SI, Hupé P, Barillot E, Soumelis V: A critical function for transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin 23 and proinflammatory cytokines in driving and modulating human T(H)-17 responses. Nat Immunol. 2008, 9: 650-657.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Acosta-Rodriguez EV, Napolitani G, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F: Interleukins 1beta and 6 but not transforming growth factor-beta are essential for the differentiation of interleukin 17-producing human T helper cells. Nat Immunol. 2007, 8: 942-949.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Manel N, Unutmaz D, Littman DR: The differentiation of human T(H)-17 cells requires transforming growth factor-beta and induction of the nuclear receptor RORgammat. Nat Immunol. 2008, 9: 641-649. 10.1038/ni.1610.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Reimund JM, Wittersheim C, Dumont S, Muller CD, Kenney JS, Baumann R, Poindron P, Duclos B: Increased production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6 by morphologically normal intestinal biopsies from patients with Crohn's disease. Gut. 1996, 39: 684-689. 10.1136/gut.39.5.684.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Shanahan F, Brogan M, Targan S: Human mucosal cytotoxic effector cells. Gastroenterology. 1987, 92: 1951-1957.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kryczek I, Wei S, Zou L, Altuwaijri S, Szeliga W, Kolls J, Chang A, Zou W: Cutting edge: Th17 and regulatory T cell dynamics and the regulation by IL-2 in the tumor microenvironment. J Immunol. 2007, 178: 6730-6733.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Su X, Ye J, Hsueh EC, Zhang Y, Hoft DF, Peng G: Tumor microenvironments direct the recruitment and expansion of human Th17 cells. J Immunol. 2010, 184: 1630-1641. 10.4049/jimmunol.0902813.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang B, Rong G, Wei H, Zhang M, Bi J, Ma L, Xue X, Wei G, Liu X, Fang G: The prevalence of Th17 cells in patients with gastric cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008, 374: 533-537. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.07.060.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miyahara Y, Odunsi K, Chen W, Peng G, Matsuzaki J, Wang RF: Generation and regulation of human CD4+ IL-17-producing T cells in ovarian cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008, 105: 15505-15510. 10.1073/pnas.0710686105.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kryczek I, Banerjee M, Cheng P, Vatan L, Szeliga W, Wei S, Huang E, Finlayson E, Simeone D, Welling TH, Chang A, Coukos G: Phenotype, distribution, generation, and functional and clinical relevance of Th17 cells in the human tumor environments. Blood. 2009, 114: 1141-1149. 10.1182/blood-2009-03-208249.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Rovedatti L, Kudo T, Biancheri P, Sarra M, Knowles CH, Rampton DS, Corazza GR, Monteleone G, Di Sabatino A, Macdonald TT: Differential regulation of interleukin 17 and interferon gamma production in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut. 2009, 58: 1629-1636. 10.1136/gut.2009.182170.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ye J, Su X, Hsueh EC, Zhang Y, Koenig JM, Hoft DF, Peng G: Human tumor-infiltrating Th17 cells have the capacity to differentiate into IFN-γ + and FOXP3+ T cells with potent suppressive function. Eur J Immunol. 2011, 41: 936-951. 10.1002/eji.201040682.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hoechst B, Gamrekelashvili J, Manns MP, Greten TF, Korangy F: Plasticity of human Th17 cells and iTregs is orchestrated by different subsets of myeloid cells. Blood. 2011, 117: 6532-6541. 10.1182/blood-2010-11-317321.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/12/418/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.